美国网络战司令部 American Network Warfare Command centralized cyberspace headquarters
Source: Sohu 2013-2-28 1728 中華人民共和國
2013-2-28 17:28 来源：搜狐网
在2010年5月美国网络战司令部成立之前，美国国防部网络战能力被分解到多个不同的组织和服务机构中。从本质上讲，网络战能力主要分为网络进攻能力和网络防御能力。在网络进攻方面，网络战联合功能构成司令部（JFCC - NW）负责规划和执行网络战行动，“确保美国及其盟国在网络空间中的行动自由，并削弱对手在网络空间的行动自由，并使这种优势延伸到网络领域之外。”该司令部隶属于美国战略司令部（STRATCOM），由美国国家安全局（NSA）主任负责指挥，和美国国家安全局一并坐落在美国阿里兰州的米德堡军事基地。在网络防御方面，全球网络联合部队（JTF - GNO）负责“运行和维护全球信息栅格（GIG），以保证及时、安全的网络中心战能力，通过打破战略、战役和战术的严格界限，实现对国防部作战、情报和商业等方面的全谱支持”，或者简而言之，负责管理国防部网络并保护这些网络免受外部攻击。该机构也是战略司令部的一个次级司令部，指挥关系上却由国防信息系统局（DISA）主任指挥，该组织坐落在美国弗吉尼亚州的阿灵顿市的国防信息系统局总部。虽然这两个司令部都隶属于美国战略司令部，他们行政关系和地理位置却被分割开来，考虑到在网络空间中决策制定的时间短暂性和协调同步性要求，这就使有效地统一行动和协调动作变得异常艰难。这就是决定将这两个国防部网络战机构合二为一，组建网络战司令部的根本动因。
Rough Mandarin Chinese Translation:
American Network Warfare Command: centralized cyberspace headquarters
2013-2-28 17:28 Source: Sohu
Almost unprecedented rapid growth of network space and related technologies have affected every aspect of human society, and an information communication created a than ever quick new field. Recognize the potential of cyberspace national security after the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) in 2010 through the merger of the original network attack troops and network defense forces to create a Network Warfare Command (USCYBERCOM). However, the original intent of this transformation is to allow all network warfare units in the same headquarters under such a centralized command structure is a challenge to the authority of the traditional geographic combatant commander (GCC), because the traditional geographic operational command official in the battlefield areas of responsibility (AOR) was granted absolute command. Of course, this initiative has also led to more and more controversial defensive network warfare is essentially a long-term, unified effort, offensive network warfare is very different, because they are usually aimed at a specific area of responsibility, time is very short-term, and each time the circumstances are very different. This relates to the geographic combatant commanders in their respective areas of responsibility within the command of offensive network operations command of the issues. However, before the establishment of the American Network Warfare Command, the command of the offensive network warfare power is dispersed in a loose network of institutions, sometimes also may be in violation of the unified command intent. However, fully taking into account the basic characteristics of cyberspace, fully support the concept of centralized command and control cyberspace operations. American Network Warfare Command must adhere to the centralized control of all network warfare operations of the Department of Defense, and embedded in the various combatant commands through the coordination of combat units to achieve synchronization.
Cyberspace is the use of electronics and the electromagnetic spectrum to stored data via networked systems and associated physical infrastructures, modify, and exchange field.
- " American cyberspace military operations in the national strategy
The explosive growth of the Internet and related technologies has far exceeded the growth rate of any communications medium in history. In just the past 15 years, the global Internet usage has grown from less than 0.4% of the world's population (in 1995 with 16 million users) the development of more than 30% of the world's population (20 million users in 2010). This exponential growth that the world's dependence on the Internet also showed a dramatic increase in the rapid increase in communication speed can be achieved only in cyberspace.
The current cyberspace affects almost every aspect of human society. From the business and entertainment, to education and government, network connectivity space greatly improve communication ability and almost real-time communication. But along with these advantages come one after another great network security risk and vulnerability, because each network connection in cyberspace for those who attempt to steal information, destroy data or destroy the system provides a potential open gap. This situation is related to cyberspace interconnected individuals and organizations. But for the government, its importance even than dealing with those who attempt to create the reality of physical destruction and harm people behavior more meaningful. In particular, the United States military, increasingly aware of the potential impact of the network space action combat environment. U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) in the 2010 Quadrennial Defense Review Report "(QDR), said:" In the 21st century, if not reliable, efficient information resources, communication networks and the Internet, modern forces can not high-tech war. "This report also disclosed that the U.S. Department of Defense to run in 88 countries worldwide with more than 15,000 separate computer networks, connected to more than 4000 military infrastructure 5. The face of such a large and extensive network, the Department of Defense network has become the target of choice for those who do not need to challenge the United States military forces in the form of traditional war hostile countries.
In order to deal with this growing threat to network security, and efforts to organize and standardize cyberspace training and combat in May 2010 , the U.S. Department of Defense established the U.S. Cyber Command (abbreviated as USCYBERCOM or CYBERCOM). Established for the purpose of the new headquarters of the unity and coordination of network operations in the United States in the global security environment. "However, this is simply the concept of elaboration and theoretical discussion, the important question is how to better command in cyberspace operations and control (C2), and also handle the command and control problems inevitable in the real world, these problems may restrict the Network Warfare Command's ability to effectively control the network warfare operations. To solve this problem, the three characteristics of cyberspace must focus to consider: First cyberspace unbounded, and this ability will also affect a number of different areas of responsibility area (AOR); two instant network events and network The rapidity of the response, is a broad range of cyberspace and the rapid growth rate. Once these factors have been a comprehensive analysis, we can easily find that the most effective solution to special factors and vulnerability of cyberspace, the American Network Warfare Command must be able to concentrate fully control all Department of Defense network warfare operations, and through the coordination of embedded network warfare institutions in various combatant commands to the harmonization of these actions.
Background: from the telegraph to the network warfare
When my first contact with the word "cyberspace", it was a very formal jargon. Actually saying nothing seems exciting. It was also representing some meaning, but there is no real language interpreter, even for me, and I just paper to see it.
- William Gibson
Cyberspace before being human knowledge has existed for a long time. Cyberspace, by definition, in the 1830s along with the birth of the first telegram, in the subsequent century and a half, cyberspace has been used for radio waves to transmit voice and data information through the atmosphere. However, the actual concept of cyberspace until 1984 was only U.S. writer William? Gibson in his novel neural wanderer, "first proposed, he works in cyberspace described as:" a unified fantasy ... graphically said data extracted from the vaults of the human system each computer ... incredibly complex. "Of course, there was no one could have predicted the significance of the word will represent. After just three decades, cyberspace has not only become a widely used and well-known medium for rapid exchange of information, and the field of cyberspace has also been widely recognized in society.
In the military, network warfare is not a new concept. In 1982, the U.S. satellite with giant strong explosion occurred in central Siberia and causes a fire. The U.S. military initially suspect that the explosion of a small Soviet nuclear facility, but it was soon recognized that the Soviet gas pipeline accident occurred. The reason is the pressure of the gas pipeline monitoring system computer virus or logic bomb "attack was a failure, these computer viruses prior embedded computer management control of the natural gas pipeline system. The virus causes a failure of pumps and valves of the gas pipeline, resulting in excessive system pressure, thereby creating one of the most unusual can be observed from space to non-nuclear violent explosions. "In this event, the computer virus embedded via the Internet is not (in fact, the software vendor's Web site is embedded), this event many see as the first with a significant network attack case. Since then, the ability of cyberspace had a tremendous impact on the operational theory of action guidance for war theory and has become an important part. Military commanders "almost entirely dependent on cyberspace technology to decision makers, commanders and troops to transmit information and to provide to the combatant commanders unprecedented ability to observe, judgment, decision-making and action." Cyberspace is now widely recognized is a real military struggle, many people have now been "cyberspace war's fifth space, air, land, sea and space and become an important battlefield in future wars." fully understand the network space activities future national security significance of what the true motivation through the formation of the Network Warfare Command, to unify, coordinate and streamline the Department of Defense network warfare capabilities.
Network Warfare Command was established in May 2010, the U.S. Department of Defense cyber warfare capabilities be broken down into a number of different organizations and service agencies. Essentially, cyber warfare capabilities into network attack capabilities and network defense capabilities. Constitute Command (JFCC - NW) is responsible for the planning and implementation of network warfare action in terms of network attack, network warfare, joint function, "to ensure the freedom of movement of the United States and its allies in cyberspace, and weaken the opponents of freedom of action in cyberspace and this advantage extends to networks outside the realm of "The command is part of the United States Strategic Command (STRATCOM), in charge of directing by the director of the U.S. National Security Agency (NSA) and the U.S. National Security Council is located in the United States Ali Lanzhou together Fort Meade military base. In the area of network defense, global network of Joint Force (JTF - GNO) is responsible for the operation and maintenance of the Global Information Grid (GIG), in order to ensure timely, secure, network-centric warfare capabilities by breaking strategic, operational, and tactical strict boundaries to achieve Department of Defense operations, intelligence, and commercial aspects of the full spectrum of support ", or in short, is responsible for the management of the Department of Defense network and protect the network from external attacks. The agency is also a secondary headquarters of the Strategic Command, command relationships, but commanded by the director of the Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA), the organization is located in the headquarters of the Defense Information Systems Agency in Arlington, Virginia, USA. Although the two headquarters are part of the U.S. Strategic Command, administrative relations and geographical location but was split off from decision-making in cyberspace brief period of time and coordination synchronization requirements, taking into account, which makes effective unified action and coordination of action has become extremely difficult. This is the decision of these two network war of Defense agencies into one, the fundamental cause of the formation of the Network Warfare Command.
Rough Mandarin Chinese Translation:
American Network Warfare Command converged network warfare capabilities:
Extends far past joint task force of U.S. military networks are loose, too wide, until recently, the network strength only in geographically and institutionally efficient and reasonable.
- U.S. Deputy Secretary of Defense William J. Lynn
American Network Warfare Command was formally established on May 21, 2010, is a secondary headquarters of the U.S. Strategic Command. The allocation of the 464 active duty military and 476 civilian personnel, most of these people from the above two institutions merged network. Network Warfare Command assumed responsibility to defend the information security environment "centralized cyberspace resources, creating the effect of organizations do not have the coordination and unified operations". Secretary of Defense Robert? Gates ministerial memorandum of June 23, 2009 Strategic Command "transfer of power to the provisions of Article 18 of the Joint Command Plan (UCP), the special operations command and cyberspace network Battle Command ". The memorandum also noted that combat commanders, the military services and Defense Department agencies continue to obey the leadership of the U.S. Strategic Command, to ensure that the United States Network Warfare Command is responsible for the operation and maintenance of the Global Information Grid. Third paragraph of Article 18 of the Joint Command plans did not detail the provisions of its core position, Gates Minister of command is very clear: the Network Warfare Command than other Department of Defense agencies have absolute power, and all other agencies of the Department of Defense must obey the command of the Network Warfare Command.
However, this simple and clear representation becomes ambiguous face reality. Although the characteristics of cyberspace seems to require need centralized command mode in a real sense, any opponent in the battle in cyberspace that exists in reality and be implemented in the area of responsibility of the geographic combatant commanders. This creates a potential problem, the geographic combatant commanders cannot be asked to make concessions to the United States Network Warfare Command control over their personal / collective equipment . This non-traditional command and control structure "to challenge the traditional powers of the geographic combatant commanders, and in the future might Network Warfare Command and the United States in terms of command relationships determine new conflicts." Therefore, this is a serious problem must be well coordinated to solve, because the use of such a centralized approach to the implementation of the command and control of such cases seems to be the most logical, but at the same time geographic combatant commanders may prevent absolute control of its area of responsibility. The most critical and effective way to solve this problem is relatively opponents to maintain a competitive advantage, not always stick to the usually obstruct the democratic process of the Western political, legal and grade program.
Characteristics of cyberspace
The Internet is the first human created but not yet fully grasp something, our experience over the largest experiment in anarchy.
- Eric? Schmidt
Unbounded and it also affects the ability of different geographic areas of responsibility; networks in the most appropriate command and control structure to determine the Network Warfare Command to manage the Department of Defense network wartime, cyberspace three general characteristics worthy of further consideration: cyberspace the rapid dissemination and rapid response time of the event; broad range of cyberspace and the growth rate of the index. These three areas to further determine this centralized control network warfare action is necessary and effectiveness.
No Boundaries in Cyberspace:
The nature of cyberspace is complex and difficult to understand. Cyberspace is often described as illusory, conceptual or imagined environment seems to usually be identified by the human field is a false imagination. In reality, however, when considering its true nature, cyberspace the fact that in the physical aspect can be determined. Cyberspace exists only in all 'contains' physical objects linked with other physical objects in cyberspace. If you do not have a computer system, processor, storage equipment, transmission equipment, wire, cable and other media used to connect them, will cease to exist in cyberspace. At the same time, the above constitute cyberspace network equipment has a realistic place to limit the physical object, link these actual data transfer network equipment are composed of energy, these energy rarely concerned with artificially set in the world of "reality" network borders or boundaries. Transmission of data where the energy spread (either by wire, cable, or air), cyberspace extends to go, as long as the other end of the a physical chip device can handle the transmission of information. In addition, the transmission method is generally used in the network space to packet switching, this transmission mode is essentially a 'message' subcontractors into smaller data packets, and then use a different transmission medium along different physical paths to transmit these packets to the destination ground. Only in all the data packet arrives at its destination at the destination, these data can be reassembled into the original message. Essentially, a typical data transmission through cyberspace by more than one area of responsibility, whether it is the middle point of origin or destination. Cyberspace actually without dividing lines, limitations or boundaries, and extends to the physical network structure can be extended to any place.
Unbounded space network so that any attempt to command and control operations in cyberspace has become extremely complex. Network operations for a specific area of responsibility may be "targeting" a precise area of responsibility, or another area of responsibility, and at the same time, however, the data transfer in this process was undoubtedly through additional areas of responsibility. In addition, once the data issued data transmission often cannot be reclaimed, and cannot control the transmission results reached its destination. "The impact of the second and third network attacks on unrelated systems sometimes impossible to predict or counter, is likely to affect other innocent victims. In the very brief history of the Internet, the computer attack capability examples abound flooding attack in a very short period of time. An early network attack case occurred in 1988, Cornell University graduate Robert? Morris designed a program, which aims to make an experiment to measure the size of the Internet network. This procedure, however, quickly self-replication, and spread rapidly to an unimaginable speed, Morris found himself (later convicted) to write the first Internet worm. More recently, in 2001, NIMDA virus the (ADMIN anti-Write) verified the great progress of network attack techniques. NIMDA virus, is actually a combination of computer viruses and computer worms can spread at great speed, and using a variety of methods to try to infect the computer system until it finds a way to allow it to enter the system. "This virus never existed nationwide spread in just a short span of one hour, but it lasted a few days," and quickly became a world virus attack is the most widely attacked thousands of computer servers and hundreds thousands of personal computers. "
Although the above two examples clearly show that the network attack aimlessly diffusion trend can not consider the network geographic boundaries and borders, while a related targeted network attack case affect multiple areas of responsibility in the 2008 Russian-Georgian conflict can be seen. This network conflict, Russia with a denial of service network attacks, attacked the Georgian army, government, social website to undermine Georgia's command and control capabilities, and produce a volatile situation in the society people.
In the event, Russia's successful adoption of a way to cover up the source of real network attacks, Russia indirectly through third-party servers around the world route network attack line. Is particularly worth mentioning is that the company involved in the incident to a website, "it belongs to a company in Texas, to be used to attack the Georgian government websites, and then very "coincidental" to redeploy to Atlanta Strictly speaking, the United States in these network attacks suffered indirect damage.
Rough Mandarin Chinese Translation:
Obviously, these examples clearly reflect the to how cyberspace is unbounded and results in more than one area of responsibility at the same time be affected, including not only the arbitrary routing data issued by many network path, but also including intentional operation made by these same route. As American Network Warfare Commander General Alexander pointed out that in the last month, and the lack of "cyberspace borders means that the threat of a place is the threat of all places, of course, this also gives us a truly improve the sharing network situational awareness, and help us to protect military, government and private websites and data godsend. "The command of the Ministry of Defence and network warfare focus is our best way to eliminate cyberspace unbounded.
The need for centralized command and control over the Department of Defense cyberspace in addition to the network space unbounded support, the speed of cyberspace also support this need. There is no doubt that the network action in cyberspace extremely rapid; action is so fast, so network speed is becoming a popular spoken. This extraordinary speed of the network is not only related to cyberspace nearly the speed of light to transmit data in different media, but also the speed of digital devices in the data processing and storage, in accordance with Moore's Law, the processing power in the past few decades Almost is growing at an exponential rate. Digital device such astonishing speed NIMDA virus attack is very obvious. Although the speed of the spread of the virus worldwide is staggering, but even more shocking is the speed of self-replication of the virus. The development of the Internet to make it from the incoming become by far the world's most widely spread virus only just 22 minutes.
If it is to be a clear understanding of the rapid growth of the processing power of military digital communications equipment, need only compare the past two decades, the two Iraq war can be. "It is reported that, in the 1991 Gulf War, requires more than an hour to send a message takes less than a second time in the war in Iraq in 2003." This simple comparison reveals the data transmission capacity in the past two decades made incredible progress, but also implies the ability to achieve greater development in the future.
There is a general consensus between the network technicians, offensive network warfare than the defensive network warfare advantage 39. Many of the characteristics of the Internet is conducive to network attacks, including global connectivity, the fragile network infrastructure, lack of network attack attribution and can choose the ability to attack time and place. "These advantages, because almost anti-Internet Security features than the network defender a more obvious advantage to network attacks. U.S. Deputy Secretary of Defense William J. Lynn, an article published in the September 2010 edition of the "foreign things" Concerning this question, he said: "The Internet in the beginning of the design is to enhance collaboration and rapid expansion of the scale, set the threshold of technological innovation is very low; security and identity management had not attracted sufficient attention. precisely because of structural reasons, the U.S. government to defend the development of the capacity of the network security always lagged behind its rival U.S. network vulnerabilities ability Lynn Minister's comments focused on the intrinsic properties of the Internet emphasizes the security of the Internet, however, he proposed a network defenders need to face factors: speed.
The effectiveness of the attack will depend largely on the speed of response of the network defender. Have all the advantages of the network attacker depends on whether it has enough speed to go beyond network defender's ability to effectively deploy the defense. In this issue, Lynn Minister went on to say, "network warfare more like maneuver warfare, speed and flexibility are the most important." General Alexander also expressed similar views on the importance of speed, he said, "we have to network speed to manipulate and respond to a variety of situations, and take full advantage of automation technology and independent decision-making techniques.
The General Alexander statements fully endorsed the view of the Minister of Lynn, also exposed the real factors restricting the speed of the network environment: labor input. Proposal automation technology, autonomous decision-making technology ", General Alexander actually needs to reduce human-computer interaction and artificial decision-making level. Cyberspace event of sudden almost no reaction time to a manual decision-making, such as it comes to the importance of the threat, what course of action may be the best, even in exceptional circumstances that is responsible and so on. Pre-set only using this automated processing rules to eliminate these artificial level, as Alexander recommended that the Department of Defense must keep up with cyber threats pace. Centralized command network warfare command and control of the Department of Defense is the best way to minimize the human-computer interaction and artificial decision-making.
Either now or in the future, the significance of the network space cannot be underestimated. As previously interpretation of the scope and growth rate of the network space greatly exceeds all communication technology. Recently, Internet users has exceeded 20 million is expected that this data will be close to 30 billion by 2015. With the increase in the number of network users, network devices to send and receive data growth, the "size" of cyberspace has also been extended. For American Network Warfare Command, this transformation provides more powerful features and also provides a more in need of protection network vulnerabilities. But also provide more opportunities through unified Command to maximize all forces to focus on investing in automation force.
In terms of operation and maintenance of the continued growth of the network infrastructure, lack of resources and technology, which affect the integrity and security of the Department of Defense network? Ineffective oversight of the network resources often lead to the inevitable vulnerabilities, such as application software patches, the unattended network firewall and no anti-virus software updated. General Alexander expressed in the report submitted to the House of Representatives Subcommittee in March 2011, entitled "the emergence of new threats and the ability to" high degree of concern on this issue, he said: "We found that we cannot afford to do what we need to complete all that white, our resources very weak, and the network crisis will soon be to suppress the power of our network. "this network resource defects can be resolved through a centralized network warfare command and control capability, so you can maximize concentration of all defense Ministry of power of the Internet, and duplicate functions, systems, training and other aspects of waste is reduced to a minimum. In addition, due to the constantly updated development of the network capacity, keeping up the pace of state-of-the-art technology requires huge financial input for the procurement of equipment, updates and training. Network Warfare Command and the Department of Defense the centralized network warfare command and control capability will benefit due to downsizing in the acquisition, training and implementation process, especially in cooperation with other governments to take the initiative. Such a centralized advantage can be confirmed from the recent case, several government departments recently signed multiple contracts for the purchase of encryption products, it comes to the Department of Defense over 20 departments and more than twenty other government agencies. "The focus on the purchase is the first (and only one) really make full use of the capacity of the Government as a whole to achieve a great product discounts, pricing to be 90% to 98% lower than before the General Services Administration (GSA)." This is proof of a strengthening existing networks, institutions benefit, but also sets the the China Defense Department command and control network warfare command another obvious advantage.
Rough Mandarin Chinese Translation:
Command and control of the opposing point of view: a decentralized network attacks
Proficiency in network speed, we must respond to various situations, and take full advantage of automation technology and autonomous decision-making technologies.
- Keith? General Alexander, American Network Warfare Command
As discussed earlier, the central command and control point of view, there are many obvious advantages, some people will say, this is not the future management of the military the best way to network warfare. Of course, there are more and more people need to think the network defense action essentially centralized control mode network offensive operations are not suitable for this situation. Defense throughout the Department of Defense network needs to be a central, long-term, unified effort, network attacks with completely different, this behavior is often targeted, short-lived, and in each case are very different. Network target is in fact a particular location, therefore the implementation of the area of responsibility of a geographic combatant commander. This will lead to the geographic combatant commanders must better awareness and understanding of the special and unique requirements of each case, and therefore should have the right to make final decision, decide how to network attacks within their own area of responsibility. In addition, with the development of network weapons, these weapons function improved to better control and reduce the secondary effects, because these secondary effects could spread to other areas of responsibility. Such a complex situation in the Stuxnet virus against Iran’s nuclear program. The purpose of making this important limitations malware "control systems for Iran's uranium enrichment facilities, while strictly limiting indirect impact. The purpose of this virus designed to "limit its spread ....... so that it stays in the target facility." This complex virus almost completely achieves its designed purpose, "According to reports, the virus is dormant in the national nuclear facilities for many years, and without any significant secondary damage report. This network weapons effectiveness and controlled of sexually suggestive networks weapons in the future in this regard will achieve greater development in the future to achieve longer control, and further support the organization of the geographic combatant commanders in their areas of responsibility offensive the power of the network action.
Although the above controversy grasp the advantages of network warfare, but still need global coordination of network attack activities. Despite, in fact, the geographic combatant commanders apparently is the best person to understand the unique factors within the area of responsibility and the special circumstances row, the nature of the network area can only come from a the Command centralized control coordination synchronization. Complex network of weapons, such as Stuxnet, has invested a lot of time and resources for the development, but there is a very short useful life (usually one-time use), because once these weapons are put into use, the opponent will quickly respond and Quick defense. 50 In addition, in the process of developing cyber weapon in the future may be in the control virus is not intended to affect more improvement action; the topography of the network is boundary less yet still exists, because any route of transmission of data on the Internet, it cannot avoid also cannot be ignored.
The separate network attack and defense may give the absolute authority of the geographic combatant commanders in offensive network operations, these advantages are reflected in the American Network Warfare Command, before the establishment of the decentralized structure. Back the command and control structure may be contrary to the original intention to create American Network Warfare Command, also denied the benefits brought by the Department of Defense combined offensive and defensive network organization. Network Warfare Command must be centralized control of the U.S. Department of Defense network warfare operations, whether offensive or defensive.
Conclusions and recommendations
The core of the network Command intelligence, offensive and defensive concentrated in one department.
- J. Lynn, U.S. Deputy Secretary of Defense
Unprecedented rapid growth of cyberspace affects almost every aspect of human society, and creating a new information communication more rapid than ever. Aware of the potential impact of cyberspace on national security, the Department of Defense created the U.S. The purpose of the Network Warfare Command synchronization and coordination is designed to maximize network operational effectiveness. "However, although the establishment of this institution all the centralized power of the Internet to a headquarters, which also affected the traditional command structure that is granted to the absolute command of the geographic combatant commanders in their area of responsibility. However, once they are fully aware of the basic features of cyberspace, which is very easy to understand, to deviate from the traditional licensing model is not only necessary, but also than the opponents need to maintain our edge in cyberspace. Finally, we asked the following three suggestions:
American Network Warfare Command must maintain centralized control of all operations in the United States in cyberspace, whether offensive or defensive. Geographic combatant commanders to meet other combatant commands should be embedded in each Operations Command headquarters coordinating body for American Network Warfare Command to coordinate action in cyberspace with the geographic combatant commanders in the field of traditional combat action. These coordinating organizations must be attributed to the U.S. Command Network Warfare Command, but granted direct contact Operations Command.
American Network Warfare Command should be developed into a full combatant command. Network Warfare Command into a subordinate headquarters, rather than, like the need to spend a lot of time and effort to develop a complete operational command Combat Command, "Reducing the previous efforts to develop a subordinate headquarters ... more quickly achieve the Department of Defense in a unified cyber warfare capabilities in the full spectrum of direct target ... but relative to a complete Operations Command, need to reduce the structure, mandate and terms of reference.” Strategic Command has the powers of the organization's network warfare operations completely granted American Network Warfare Command commander, legitimacy and influence only get like geographic combatant commanders Combat Command commander position, but did not really become a veritable geographic combatant commander.
American Network Warfare Command should be granted absolute authority, similar to the U.S. Special Operations Command. This will make the Cyber Command harmonization and simplification of military cyberspace capabilities Get and give full play to the advantage of the Department of Defense funds.