俄格战争是网络战的一次实践 The Russian-Georgian war seen as network warfare practice
Source: China Network 2013-3-01 1354 中華人民共和國
2013-3-01 13:54 来源：中国网
Rough Mandarin Chinese Translation:
The Russian-Georgian war is a network warfare practice
2013-3-01 13:54 Source: China Network
Over the years, the army has been using electromagnetic attack to destroy the enemy on the battlefield communication system, and now has added a variety of information warfare capabilities. Network campaign against Georgia in August 2008 may be one of the best examples to illustrate how appropriate the modern battlefield use of computer network attack on the latest information warfare capabilities. In that battle, Russia and their supporters through the Internet undermine Georgia's key media website, called denial of network services, a new era of network defense electronic warfare jamming technology.
The action of these cyber-attack speed and multi-directional adhere to the traditional military-intensive technology, and suppression of the target network defense in Georgia. The attacking forces highly fragmented, but its operations synchronization and concentrated, Georgia is almost impossible to make any defense reaction. The main purpose of the network battle is to support the Russian invasion of Georgia, cyber-attacks skillfully with a military invasion plans. Many network attacks obvious plan of Georgia is difficult to determine what happened. Georgia cannot afford to maintain its website operation immediately undermine its morale. These attacks also played a delay of the international community to react to the role of conflict in South Ossetia region.
From the network battle for Georgia may learn the most important strategic experience is that cyber-attacks is the battlefield a viable military option. The experience of another point is to launch a cyber-attack from a remote secure location, a little more experience in some cases, battlefield commanders considered strategic To limit the physical damage to the target, you can use these operations.
Network campaign against Georgia tactical success, but cyber-attacks on the enemy's information system to replace the traditional attacks, such as air strikes against direct attack or by special operations forces, there are still a few aspects of shortcomings. One of the drawbacks is that the network attack does not produce consequences that can be measured as the dynamic attack. The reason is that if the target system, some general improvements (such as application-level repair), a special network attacks often lost. Combat the sides are evenly matched, as a result of the implementation of the defense and development of network attack techniques easier and faster, so the majority of network attacks defender but has a tactical advantage.
Despite these technical and tactical restrictions, computer network operations in future military conflicts there are still a lot of potential. For example, in the era of industrial war to destroy key objectives often by physical methods, and so close to the target area. In the era of network defense, network destroyed the possibility of industrial targets increased exponentially. The major countries have the ability to destroy the the civilian industry with strategic value of information systems. These critical infrastructure, including airports, power plants, dams, oil and gas pipelines, oil refineries, seaports, railways and manufacturing equipment. The history of war shows that these industrial facilities are to attack and destroy the target.
我们没有了解到解密的军队部署逻辑炸弹的历史事件，但是有一些来自民用部门的例子。其中的一个例子是一名心怀不满的职员将逻辑炸弹植入UBS PaineWebber公司的计算机中，并将其引爆，消去了约2，000台公司计算机的关键文件。据报道说，一些受侵袭的计算机脱机达数星期之久，影响了公司的日常业务。2008年，美国的Fannie Mae抵押公司的职员意外地阻止一次类似的事件，否则逻辑炸弹就会消去4，000台服务器中的硬盘驱动程序。
据传美国中央情报局使用过一枚逻辑炸弹造成了西伯利亚管线的物理损坏，前空军部长和前国家勘测办公室主任Thomas Reed在其所着的书《深渊：冷战内幕》（At the Abyss: An Insider’s History of the Cold War）揭示了此次事件。据Thomas Reed说，美国中央情报局将恶意指令嵌入俄罗斯人盗取的管道控制系统软件中。当此软件配置到西伯利亚网络系统中的时候，逻辑炸弹被触发，启动用来破坏管道系统中压力控制元件稳定性的指令。压力不稳定触发安全机构失效并最终引起管道爆炸。这次攻击产生的后果很好地说明了不需要采用传统方法（如爆炸），也能破坏战略补给线。
Rough Mandarin Chinese Translation:
Conventional forces can be effective damage, but information warfare units to break up the fight and does not cause the physical damage of the target also will not cause injury of soldiers. Information warfare units able to use the network destruction technology, including the use of weapons of computer viruses or computer network worm. May be the most effective technique is to insert a "logic bomb" to target information system depends. During special combat these malicious programs will trigger a few months or even a few years ago introduced through various means.
A never public events during the time no public exercises. I personally produce a generic UNIX platforms some special code to analog hardware failure. Code generated warning message contains effective platform vendor support phone numbers, e-mail address and Web site address. Hardware problems with the vendor company Technical Contact the seller within two weeks of the time sent a multi-class technical staff to replace the various hardware platforms. Replacement of components not solve the problem, technicians put the issue to support at a higher level processing. Finally, due to the support department and the vendor cannot determine where the problem lies, the end of the exercise. During the exercise, hypothetical information system hardware failures spent hundreds of hours of manpower and thousands of dollars.
We have not learned to decrypt the army deployment logic bombs, historical events, but there are some examples from the civilian sector. One example is a disgruntled staff logic bomb implanted UBS PaineWebber's computer, and detonated the elimination of approximately 2,000 computer key documents. It is reported that some of the invasion of computer was offline for several weeks, affecting the company's day-to-day business. 2008, the staff of the U.S. mortgage company Fannie Mae accident to prevent a similar incident, or logic bombs will eliminate 4,000 server hard disk driver.
Book is rumored that the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency used a logic bomb caused physical damage of the pipeline in Siberia, Thomas Reed, former Secretary of the Air Force and former director of the National Reconnaissance Office, in his book "The Abyss: Cold War insider" (At the Abyss: An Insider's History of the Cold War) revealed the incident. According to Thomas Reed, CIA malicious instructions embedded in the Russian people steal the pipeline control system software. When this software is configured to Siberia network system, the logic bomb is triggered, the boot used to destroy the instruction of the control element of the pressure in the piping system stability. Pressure instability triggered the failure of security agencies and eventually caused the pipeline explosion. The consequences of this attack produced well without the use of traditional methods (such as explosions) can undermine strategic supply lines.
The modern battlefield is full of military equipment, such as main battle tanks, satellite communications systems and UAV battlefield surveillance systems. These complex electronic equipment parts, these electronic components are likely to become the target of network sabotage troops. In the heat of battle, you can activate the malicious code embedded in the enemy equipment, and then to the computer hit the system of various types of equipment, global positioning systems, thermal imaging devices, communications equipment or mechanized weapons systems (such as the Russian T-95 main battle tanks ) in electrical equipment incapacitated. Network destruction attacks due to the use of stealth delivery method, used properly, can achieve amazing results. Network destruction attack has the amazing ability to make the enemy do not know if the attack is imminent or has already launched. In the ideal case, the enemy had to retreat or surrender.
Rough Mandarin Chinese Translation:
Directed destructive cyber-attacks can be quite a network destruction technology operation(s). The most telling evidence of such attacks is the Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory is code-named "goddess of the dawn" (Aurora) plans to produce video material, this video previously confidential information. The footage generator control system for the management of the Department of Energy Idaho Proving Ground initiated remote network attacks, cyber-attacks caused by the mechanical action of the generator cannot function properly. The network attacks produce tremors and loss of control of the generator rotor hit the stator, shredded winding and generator fire. Such attacks can be carried out automatically, and can be upgraded, and can be used to destroy a large number of generators.
This attack is a frightening thing for the industrial sector and government departments in the United States is responsible for the security and economic stability of the power grid. Resulting from the dawn goddess "plan is one of the most confusing issue is how cyber-attacks caused by mechanical parts to produce long-lasting physical damage. The various components of the electric power system (e.g., dams, power plant and electric power transmission lines) and has always been the objective of war. Allied troops in the two world wars have through the massive bombing of the destruction of the power system. In 1999, U.S. troops in the NATO forces with non-lethal ammunition containing carbon graphite filaments destroyed Serbia’s electricity infrastructure.
Although air combat effective way to be regarded as a failure of the enemy's power system, but also network attacks can be used to achieve a similar purpose. Information warfare units to determine the combat area, launched a precise attack to destroy the power system in the conventional forces deployed previously. Some political context, the use of strategic information warfare units instead of conventional forces may be more suitable choice. Information warfare units can be used to provide a commensurate response to the destruction of the enemy's critical infrastructure (such as the power system). In this case, the spending limit physical damage can reduce repair time and post-conflict recovery.
One of the principles of network attacks in line with Clausewitz's nine military that savings troops, is the wise use of combat forces to achieve the mission objectives. Military launched cyber-attacks on power facilities can increase possible external results in combat areas. The tactical network attacks can cause significant damage to a conventional land-based and Internet voice communications infrastructure, the mobile phone network, TV and radio. Secondary damage can cut off the command and control channel, or to weaken air defense network, which is conducive to regular combat troops.
A period of 60 minutes called "damage the system" video, focusing describe another information warfare attacks. In the video, the Sandia National Laboratory experts demonstrate how to destroy the refinery's production. The design of network attacks causes key components to overheat, causing the refinery to produce catastrophic failure. Experts by changing the settings of the refinery heating device and to control the temperature elevated circulating pump failure triggered the failure. Similar cyber-attacks can be implemented by information warfare units to destroy enemy forces to produce fuel, lubricants and petrochemical products refinery.
The nation-state in violation of international treaties, to enrich uranium to produce nuclear weapons can also be similar to information warfare attacks. Majority unauthorized uranium enrichment facilities are built in the depths of the earth, including including bunker Terminator bomb conventional ammunition are difficult to penetrate and destroy such a sturdy building. However, the network the ammunition they can be used to destroy critical facilities for uranium enrichment. One of the main goal of information warfare is used for the production of weapons-grade uranium gas centrifuges. High (such as the operating speed of the rotor in the centrifuge 50.000 rpm), network attacks can increase the speed beyond the normal level of safety, so that a single centrifuge machines to produce a catastrophic failure. Implementation of information warfare attacks on thousands of centrifuges uranium enrichment action may interrupt for a fairly long period of time.
Offensive combat operations against enemy supply lines have been carried out for several centuries. The forces of modern time material inventory method, greatly limiting strategic material reserves on hand, so you can use offensive information warfare units to destroy key supply lines. One of the key objectives of information warfare is the computerized material control system in such a fragile supply chain. Once information warfare units infiltrated computer system, you can determine the critical supplies, embedded in the inventory levels of these supplies false information, and these key supplements path of change to a distant place. Another information warfare attacks initiated may modify the radio frequency identification procedures used to keep track of supplies. The design of certain radio frequency identification tags using UHF technology vulnerable to traditional electronic warfare, information warfare attack. The goal of information warfare units can also be used in the shipping process individual equipment (such as loading cranes), because many of the modern shipping cranes are using the computer vulnerable to cyber-attacks. Many systems use embedded operating system (such as Microsoft Windows XP), a well-known security weaknesses, information warfare units could exploit these vulnerabilities so that the crane cannot work or damage.
Sometimes the needs of the armed forces of the enemy's strategic objectives are necessary for a pre-emptive conventional strike. In today's battlefield, the military can be pre-emptive network to combat the enemy's critical infrastructure targets (such as oil refineries, power plants and telecommunications node), causing damage to restrict enemy fighting ability. Such preemptive network attack may reduce the collateral damage of military conflict and casualties. The first implementation of network attack enemy succeeded in destroying the enemy's critical infrastructure in a conventional battle before, it is likely to weaken the ability of the enemy to launch a war.
Part of the examples discussed in this article is only in this network defense era army offensive information warfare, information warfare units highlighted an important role in future conflicts. In the digital age, the cyber attack on the enemies of the state is a logical extension of diplomacy and military capabilities.
In this new defense era war, not only high-tech conventional forces to use bullets and bombs, as well as information operations forces use bits and bytes. Today's U.S. military doctrine has not adequately dealt with the fighting ability of these combined with the new technology is not based on the rapid development of the network of space technology to quickly adjust, might adversely affect the military superiority. This network defense era, there is an urgent need to re-evaluate traditional war doctrine, so that our troops are able to respond to the challenges of the 21st century battlefield.