网络战对武器系统构成的威胁 ~ Network Warfare The Threat Posed By Weapon Systems -
Sohu 2013-03-07 1358 中華人民共和國
2012-3-07 13:58 来源：搜狐网
德国作家、《战争论》作者卡尔?冯?克劳塞维茨(Carl Von Clausewitz)对战争下的定义是“……旨在迫使我们的敌人服从我们的意愿的暴力行为……为全面达成这一目标，必须解除敌人的武装。因此，解除敌人武装是敌对双方最直接的目标……”。这一定义已不再能解释现代全频谱战争了。随着当今软件系统的广泛运用，不用通过暴力手段而攻击一个国家已成为现实，这也印证了克劳塞维茨的后半部分定义，即：“解除敌人武装”。 近年来，关于网络战的理论和运用已得到极大发展。虽然网络战主要与信息系统有关，但本文讨论的是网络战对武器系统造成的影响。
五、军事目标指挥、控制、通信、计算机和情报。现代军事系统离不开指挥、控制、通信、计算机和情报(C4I)，军队作战不能没有这些系统在协同和通信方面的支援。军事C4I系统是最薄弱的部分，也国防部条令中涉及网络的最主要部分。美军联合作战条令JP 3-13 和 JP 3-13.1都规定了与信息战有关的内容。C4I系统是一个极为复杂的联合体，从无线电到雷达，从大型计算机到个人电脑。军事C4I通过界面与因特网、基地和组织团体的局域网(LAN)、民用和军用通信系统、导航系统和各种频率的无线电相连接。正因为军事C4I系统相互连接，因而特别容易受到网络攻击。网络入侵可能发生在许多节点上并将影响到许多系统。例如，网络战可影响雷达、导弹和通信控制系统。 导致导弹无法发射，或改变方向，将其引向发射阵地。此外还能瘫痪或破坏指挥与控制网络、全球定位系统和移动通信系统。
Rough Mandarin Chinese Translation:
Network warfare the threat posed by weapons systems
German writer, "On War" of Carl? von? Clausewitz (Carl Von Clausewitz) the definition of war is "... violence aimed at forcing our enemy obey our wishes ... To fully achieve this a goal, we must lift the enemy armed, the lifting of the enemy armed hostile parties most directly target ... ". This definition is no longer able to explain the modern full-spectrum war. With the extensive use of today's software systems do not attack a country has become a reality through violent means, which also confirms the latter part of the definition of Clausewitz, namely: "lifting of the enemy armed. In recent years, the theory and application of network warfare has been a great development. Although network warfare and information systems, the article discusses the impact of network warfare weapons systems.
A war, no violence "network" the term used to describe mechanical or electronic systems to replace human control system. In this article, the term includes the software for the control system of tools. Network warfare, in the case of physical attacks, and therefore rely heavily on the use of software systems (network), the country's most vulnerable without violence war damage.
In conventional war, the object of attack is mainly concentrated the substance part in a system (such as: military personnel, weapons, facilities and vehicles). The purpose of the war was basically to damage and destroy these targets. Attack these targets is considered to be the primary means of "lifting of the enemy armed". From a strategic point of view, the reason to attack these targets because they are part of a larger system, including:
Manufacturing system (through strategic bombing attacks). Supply system (through interdiction bombing attack) command and control system (by blitzkrieg attacks) in each case, the purpose of elimination of a part to the impact in its entirety, even if the attacks did not destroy the entire program, at least will give the system caused by combat losses Members. Although the military's goal is to crack down on some units in this program, but the ultimate goal is to attack the program itself. These procedures is the main enemy and the enemy's "center of gravity". By attacking this center of gravity, the ability of the enemy to launch a war will be lifted. " If not to use force and attack the enemy's center of gravity, a country can not use violence case was defeated, and this ability will make war transformed. For example, if an attacker can not damage the machine or cause casualties, destruction of the enemies of the manufacturing system, then the effect will destroy all the ingredients of the system is the same, even to achieve better results. Machine parts and personnel can be replaced, but to destroy the entire system will cause more lasting damage. If the attack resulted in the paralysis of the military system, this country can not be found and the fight against this threat, then this country will not be able to protect themselves. If the success of the entire system and procedures (not component) attack, then this country will yield in the case of no force or a declaration of war.
Second, the evolution of information and network systems in the early stages of development of the Global Information Network, the definition of network warfare is based on information related to the principles of the implementation of military operations. In other words, the term is used to describe the destruction of military communications and military coordination, or the contrary, the use of information and communication systems to gain a military advantage. This definition, however, is no longer able to generalize the entire contents of the modern network warfare. With the widespread use of low-cost computer processor, memory, and other computer hardware and software has been used to control all types of uses and specifications of the system. In addition, with access to computer networks worldwide popularity of all types of systems, including civilian facilities (such as: electric power, petroleum, natural gas, transportation and water treatment systems, etc.) have been networked through a global network.
Three weapons platform weaknesses in network warfare weapons platform is increasingly dependent on software, computer hardware, and battlefield network, and thus are vulnerable to attack from the network. Although these weapons systems security measures also continue to strengthen with the development of network technology and the use of, but they are subject to the possibility of network attacks is also growing. The aircraft is the use of the network to the best example of the weapon system.
In the past, the performance of an aircraft depends on the hardware (i.e., the physical structure of the aircraft). And in recent years, advanced aircraft, more than 75% of the aircraft's performance depends on the software.
If there is no software, the aircraft will not be able to control or achieve the desired performance standards. For example, F-16 fighter planes in flight speeds below Mach 1 is unstable if there is no software support flight control system, the aircraft will not be able to control. Boeing 777 and Airbus 330 aircraft with a software flight control system, without having to manually control; these aircraft flight performance depends entirely on a digital flight control system.
In some cases, through the software performance of the aircraft can be limited does not rely on physical configuration, Therefore, the aircraft dependent and non-dependent on the hardware to the software, are increasing. For example, the F-22 fighter planes during high angle of attack flight software thrust vector control and flight control system to be manipulated. In addition, the flight of modern aircraft, engines, and weapons delivery systems by telex control system control. Soley by mechanical hardware control systems are now being replaced by the software control.
The software also determines the power or effectiveness of modern weapons systems, is the basis of a number of different systems network integration. Today, however, these network software system is very vulnerable to network attacks, network attacks and network vulnerabilities are increasing.
The network warfare doctrine still not prominent software major role in military combat systems; As discussed above, many software and software-controlled systems have become the weapons systems being developed integral part. Is an example of the weapons systems of the F-22 fighter aircraft control system of its software with its integrated information system into one.
F-22 fighter is not a closed system; during flight, external information system will be continuously updated and integrated into the F-22's combat system. With external links, not only is the information system of the F-22, but also the basic software and hardware systems are likely to be attacked. Joint doctrine (Joint Pub) currently mainly involved in information warfare doctrine is integrated in the F-22 system into the external command, control, communications, computers and intelligence (C4I) security, and software-based F-22 the system is its internal systems are vulnerable to cyber attacks. Our combat regulations must take into account these weaknesses of the offensive and defensive measures. Although non-security classification regulations and rules of the United States Department of Defense is not sufficiently stressed cyberwar, but there is still hope. Cyberspace issued in 2006 to combat the national military strategy "correctly reflects the network warfare policy specifically. Unfortunately, these policies are not fully throughout the regulations of the Department of Defense.
, Network warfare target overall network warfare goals, including networks, digital systems, facilities, and all of the information, communication and control systems behavior. Therefore, the Department of Defense, any military control by software systems are vulnerable to cyber attacks.
The first step of network attacks, network penetration; software network systems are vulnerable to infiltration. Upon completion of the network penetration, information transfer, destruction and changes in (cyber attacks) by to affect organizational system. The software within the system may be manipulated by the software control of the system can be damaged or network control (i.e. manipulate). The software itself can be copied, destroy or rewrite (cyber attacks). Military systems, including database, network warfare is often the target of attacks. The possibility of cyber attacks on the weapons system is the highest in wartime, but in peacetime to be relatively low.
Military targets in command, control, communications, computers and intelligence. Modern military system is inseparable from the command, control, communications, computers and intelligence (C4I), military operations can not be without the support of these systems in terms of coordination and communication. Military C4I system is the weakest part, also in the Department of Defense regulations involving the most important part of the network. U.S. joint operational doctrines JP 3-13 and JP 3-13.1 provisions related content and information warfare. C4I system is an extremely complex one of the Commonwealth, from mainframe computers to personal computers, from radio to radar. Military C4I local area network (LAN) interface with the Internet, bases and organizations, civilian and military communications systems, navigation systems, and various frequency radio connection. Military C4I systems interconnected, and therefore particularly vulnerable to cyber-attacks. Network intrusion may occur and will affect many systems in many nodes. For example, network warfare can affect radar, missile and communication control system. The missile can not launch, or change direction, lead to the launch site. Addition can paralyze or destroy the command and control networks, global positioning systems and mobile communication systems.
Of these systems and their interactions are so complex that no modern military organizations to fully guard against the potential hazards of any network intrusion. Any type of network attacks may have resulted in disastrous consequences. For example, nuclear weapons control system is connected with the military C4I. As the Department of Defense network, database and website, invasion, almost any network enemy can launch cyber-attacks on military computer systems. The military computer system is the country the C4I of the core, and therefore, the successful attack on these goals will pose a serious threat to American security.
附录2：网络术语新解网络战争(CyW)——旨在迫使敌方服从我国意愿的、用以攻击敌方系统软件控制程序的所有行动。 CyW包括以下网络攻击模式： 网络渗透、网络操纵、网络攻击和网络袭击。
网络攻击——包括CyI、CyM、CyA 或 CyR 的所有活动。
蓄意网络战攻击(IA)——任何以网络手段来故意影响国家安全（网络战）的攻击或有害于国家安全的进上步行为。包括无意实施者在蓄意实施者的唆使下实施的网络攻击。[参阅“非蓄意网络战攻击（UA）]。IA 等同于战争；它是在战争层次上国家政策的体现。而 UA 则基本属于网络犯罪。UA 的实施者可能是普通的黑客，也可能是职业网络罪犯，但他们的目的都是获取个人利益，而不是以某个国家为攻击目标。但这不等于说非蓄意网络攻击不会影响国家安全，或不会造成蓄意攻击那样的严重后果。
非蓄意网络战实施者(U-actors)——实施可能会影响到国家安全的网络攻击、但又没有意识到其行为可能会带来不良后果的个体。非蓄意实施者也许会受到蓄意实施者的影响，但却没有意识到自己是受人操纵来参与了网络战。非蓄意实施者包括所有实施CyI、CyM、CyA和CyR而无意影响国家安全、或无意通过进一步行为来影响国家安全的个体。这一群体也包括涉及CYC的个人、记者和工业间谍。记者和工业间谍对系统构成的威胁应引起高度重视，包括由 CyI 导致的 LUA。
Rough Mandarin Chinese Translation:
is now, together with the allied forces joint operations, equipment and systems used in technically do not necessarily state-of-the-art, did not have to use the latest safety standards. Any joint and communication between the armed forces may have exposed more security risks.
Weapons systems. Combat regulations of the U.S. Department of Defense did not fully involved in military hardware systems may be subject to cyber attacks, such as the need software to control the aircraft, vehicles and other equipment. As noted earlier, F-22 fighter is controlled by the network (see Figure 2). Both aircraft systems, network intrusion, or by the destruction of its connected to the C4I system, the disastrous consequences are tantamount to bringing it down. C4I systems to provide data for modern combat aircraft penetration by the network, will cyber attacks, network manipulation and open the door to cyber attacks. As civilian "global air traffic control system (GATM), the military" tactical target network technology system "(TTNT) and F-22 fighter flying machines between data link" (IFDL), and many other systems will automatically update the aircraft information and intelligence, so they will unwittingly aircraft penetration by the network. Intelligence, navigation and communication systems are connected to each other, to or from many of the aircraft system input or output of a large amount of information, including flight control system (autopilot) propulsion system (autothrottle), radar systems, the main alarm systems and environmental control system.
Network penetration by using the correct control program, a data input or a change in the program to make the system to cause varying degrees of damage to the fly route to rewrite from the aircraft flight control software. UAV is controlled by the thousands of miles away, the control of the UAV may be hijacked by the network. There are many other weapons systems use similar equipment and control systems, and therefore will be subject to cyber attacks.
, Calling the new operational doctrines above facts show that the Department of Defense and the United States need to develop a more comprehensive doctrine, involving all forms of network warfare, including cyber attacks on weapons systems. To classify all these network security threats, to develop a new framework for the new combat theories, there is still a long way to go in this regard. But the first step is to work out an operational doctrines, including the current and future in all areas of network warfare threat.
Therefore, the challenge we face is to mobilize the necessary human, material and financial resources, to provide strong security for all software-controlled weapons systems.
Appendix 1: the network warfare defines the U.S. Department of Defense military and related terminology dictionary "cyberspace and cyberspace operations are defined as follows:
Cyberspace - in the information environment, inter-dependent network IT facilities, including the Internet, telecommunications networks, computer systems, and embedded processors and controllers, including the global field.
Cyberspace warfare - the main purpose is to network capacity use in or through cyberspace to achieve their goals. Such operations, including computer network warfare and the use and protection of the Global Information Grid (GIG).
Appendix 2: the new network terminology solution cyberwarfare (CyW) - aimed at forcing the enemy obey our willingness to attack enemy systems software control program for all actions. CyW attack mode includes the following network: network penetration, network manipulation, cyber attacks and cyber attacks.
Network penetration (CyI) - breakthrough software control system of defense, which manipulated to attack or to attack the system.
Network manipulation (CyM) - network penetration, in the case of the system remains intact through the software to control the system, and then use the system's ability to carry out sabotage. For example, using the system's software to turn off the power.
Network attacks (CyA) - After completing the network penetration, system software and data destruction, or attack on the system the ability to damage the system. Including the ability to make a virus or to overload the system through the excess data transmission.
Cyber attacks (CyR) - After completing the network penetration, the operating system in the case of no damage to the system or access to data within the system to achieve data transfer, destruction or change of purpose.
Network attacks - including all CyI, CyM, CyA or CyR activities.
Cybercrime (CyC) - does not affect national security for the purpose of network attacks, or will affect the national security network behavior. Network war concept also applies to the cyber crime. Cyber crime is a serious problem. To avoid international disaster occurred, a country should distinguish the difference between cybercrime and network warfare. The definition of cyber crime and network warfare similar, but there are two major differences. First, cybercrime is not officially recognized political entities; network warfare is in compliance with the laws of war entities. Secondly, the purpose of cyber crime is not to force the enemy to obey their wishes, and forcing the enemy to obey their wishes is the purpose of network warfare. Cybercrime may bring serious consequences as network warfare, but the national policy should pay attention to distinguish the difference between the two to prevent the country due to the fault of the criminals in retaliation. The key difference between cyberwarfare and cybercrime in the network field is often difficult to distinguish between cyber warriors unlike the soldiers on the battlefield as easily recognizable. A country in political, not how much leeway to make lots of mistakes.
Deliberately network warfare attack (IA) - a network means to intentionally affect national security (network warfare) attacks, or walk as harmful to national security into. No intention of the perpetrators of deliberate perpetrators instigation implementation of network attacks. [See "unintentional network warfare attack (UA)] IA equivalent to war; It is a manifestation of the national policy level of war. The UA is basic belonging cybercrime. Implementers of UA ordinary hackers, it could be professional cyber criminals, but their purpose is to obtain personal benefits, rather than a country but this does not mean that non-deliberate cyber attacks will not affect the national security, or not caused by deliberate attack as the serious consequences of the attack.
Deliberately network war implementers (I-actors) - individual intentionally network warfare (network operator, network groups, cyber warriors and network forces).
Unintentional network warfare implementers (U-actors) - the implementation may affect the national security of the network attack, but do not realize that their behavior may have adverse consequences for the individual. Unintentional implementers may be deliberate implementers, but did not realize that they are manipulated by others to participate in the network war. Unintentional implementers include all implementation CyI, CyM, CyA, and CyR and is not intended to affect national security or unintentionally by further acts to affect the national security of the individual. This group also includes individuals involved CYC, reporters, and industrial espionage. Reporter and industrial espionage on the threat posed by the system should pay close attention, including lead by CyI the LUA.
Unintentional network warfare attack (UA) - does not affect national security (cyber crime) for the purpose of implementation of the attack through the network means.