网络战对武器系统构成的威胁 ~ Network Warfare The Threat Posed By Weapon Systems -

Sohu 2013-03-07 1358 中華人民共和國

网络战对武器系统构成的威胁

2012-3-07 13:58  来源:搜狐网

 

  德国作家、《战争论》作者卡尔?冯?克劳塞维茨(Carl Von Clausewitz)对战争下的定义是“……旨在迫使我们的敌人服从我们的意愿的暴力行为……为全面达成这一目标,必须解除敌人的武装。因此,解除敌人武装是敌对双方最直接的目标……”。这一定义已不再能解释现代全频谱战争了。随着当今软件系统的广泛运用,不用通过暴力手段而攻击一个国家已成为现实,这也印证了克劳塞维茨的后半部分定义,即:“解除敌人武装”。 近年来,关于网络战的理论和运用已得到极大发展。虽然网络战主要与信息系统有关,但本文讨论的是网络战对武器系统造成的影响。

  一、没有暴力的战争“网络”这一术语可用来描述用机械或电子系统取代人为控制的系统。在本文中,该术语包括将软件用作控制工具的系统。网络战可以在不实施物理攻击的情况下进行,因此,大量依靠和使用软件系统(网络系统)的国家最容易受到无暴力战争的损害。

  在传统战争中,攻击的对象主要集中在某个体系中的物质部分(如:军事人员、武器、设施和车辆)。战争的目的基本上是为了损坏和摧毁这些目标。攻击这些目标被认为是“解除敌人武装”的主要手段。从战略角度来看,之所以攻击这些目标是因为他们是更大体系中的一部分,包括:

  1.制造体系(通过战略轰炸进行攻击)2.供给体系(通过遮断轰炸进行攻击)3.指挥与控制体系(通过闪电战进行攻击)在每个案例中,消灭某个组成部分的目的是为了影响其整体,即便攻击没有破坏整个程序,至少也会给这个体系造成战斗损员。虽然军队的目标是打击这个程序中某些单元,但最终目标是攻击这个程序本身。这些程序是敌国和敌军的主要“重心”。通过攻击这一重心,敌人发动战争的能力就会被“解除”。如果能不使用武力而攻击敌人的重心,那么一个国家就能在不使用暴力的情况下被打败,而这种能力将使战争发生变革。例如,如果攻击可以在不损坏机器或造成人员伤亡的情况破坏敌人的制造体系,那么其效果将与毁掉该体系的所有成分是一样的,甚至还能达到更好的效果。因为机器部件和人员还可以替换,而毁掉整个体系则会造成更为持久的破坏。如果攻击造成了军事体系的瘫痪,而这个国家又不能发现和对抗这种威胁,那么这个国家就无法保护自己。如果这种对整个系统和程序(而不是成分)的攻击获得成功,那么这个国家就将在没有武力或宣战的情况下屈服。

  二、信息和网络系统的演变在环球信息网的早期发展阶段,对网络战的定义是根据与信息相关的原则实施的军事行动。换言之,该术语被用来描绘对军事通信和军事协调的破坏,或是相反,利用信息和通信系统来取得军事优势。然而,这一定义已不再能概括现代网络战的全部内容。随着低成本计算机处理器、存储器和其它计算机硬件的普遍使用,软件已被用来控制所有类型、用途和规格的系统。此外,随着计算机网络在全世界的普及,所有类型的系统,包括民用设施(如:电力、石油、天然气、运输和水源处理系统等)都已连网并能通过全球网络进行访问。

  三、武器平台在网络战中的弱点武器平台越来越多地依赖于软件、计算机硬件和战场网络,因而也易受到来自网络的攻击。虽然这些武器系统的安全措施也在随着网络技术的发展和使用而不断加强,但它们受到网络攻击的可能性也越来越大。飞机就是将网络运用到武器系统方面的最好例子。

  在过去,一架飞机的性能百分之百地取决于硬件(即飞机的物理结构)。而近年来,在先进飞机中,飞机的性能有75%以上是取决于软件。

  如果没有软件,飞机将无法控制或达到理想的性能标准。例如,F-16战机在飞行速度低于1马赫时就不稳定,如没有其软件支撑的飞行控制系统,飞机就无法控制。波音777和空客330飞机具有软件飞行控制系统,无需手工控制;这些飞机的飞行性能完全取决于其数字飞行控制系统。

  在某些情况下,通过软件飞机的性能可有限地不依靠物理配置,因此,飞机对软件的依赖性和对硬件的非依赖性都在增加。例如,F-22战机在进行大迎角飞行时使用的是软件控制的矢量推力和飞行控制系统来进行操纵。此外,现代飞机的飞行、发动机和武器投放系统都由电传控制系统控制。过去完全由机械硬件控制的系统现在正被软件控制所取代。

  软件还决定着现代武器系统的威力或效力,是通过网络集成许多不同系统的基础。然而,如今这些网络软件系统却很容易受到网络攻击,这种网络攻击和网络弱点都在不断增加。

  目前的网络战条令仍然没有突出软件在军事作战系统中的主要作用;而正如上面所讨论的,许多软件和软件控制的系统已成为正在研制武器系统不可分割的一部分。F-22战机的武器系统就是一个例子,其软件控制的飞机系统与其综合信息系统是联成一体的。

  F-22战机并不是一个封闭的系统;在飞行期间,外部信息系统将不断更新并融入F-22的作战系统。由于与外部链接,不仅是F-22的信息系统,而且还有基础软件和硬件系统都有可能受到攻击。目前联合作战条令(Joint Pub)中的信息战条令主要涉及的是整合于F-22系统之中的外部指挥、控制、通信、计算机和情报(C4I)的安全,而F-22以软件为主的系统则使其内部系统很容易受到网络攻击。我们的作战条令必须考虑到这些弱点,提出攻防措施。尽管美国国防部非密级条令条例没有充分强调网络战争,但还是有希望的。2006年颁布的《网络空间作战国家军事战略》就正确地而具体地体现了网络战政策。但遗憾的是,这些政策没有充分贯穿在国防部的条令中。

  四、网络战目标总体上,网络战目标包括网络、数字系统、设施和所有涉及信息、通信和控制系统的行为。因此,对国防部而言,任何由软件控制的军事系统都易受到网络攻击。

  网络攻击的第一步是网络渗透;所有使用软件的系统都易受到网络渗透。 网络渗透完成后,可通过信息转移、破坏和更改记录(即网络袭击)等行为来影响组织体系。系统内的软件可能被操纵,由该软件控制的系统可以被损坏或控制(即网络操纵)。软件本身也可以被复制、破坏或重写(即网络攻击)。军事系统,包括数据库,将是网络战经常攻击的目标。对武器系统进行网络攻击的可能性在战时最高,但在平时要相对低一些。

  五、军事目标指挥、控制、通信、计算机和情报。现代军事系统离不开指挥、控制、通信、计算机和情报(C4I),军队作战不能没有这些系统在协同和通信方面的支援。军事C4I系统是最薄弱的部分,也国防部条令中涉及网络的最主要部分。美军联合作战条令JP 3-13 和 JP 3-13.1都规定了与信息战有关的内容。C4I系统是一个极为复杂的联合体,从无线电到雷达,从大型计算机到个人电脑。军事C4I通过界面与因特网、基地和组织团体的局域网(LAN)、民用和军用通信系统、导航系统和各种频率的无线电相连接。正因为军事C4I系统相互连接,因而特别容易受到网络攻击。网络入侵可能发生在许多节点上并将影响到许多系统。例如,网络战可影响雷达、导弹和通信控制系统。 导致导弹无法发射,或改变方向,将其引向发射阵地。此外还能瘫痪或破坏指挥与控制网络、全球定位系统和移动通信系统。

  这些系统及其相互作用是如此复杂,以致没有哪个现代军事组织能够完全防犯任何一个网络入侵的全部潜在危害。任何类型的网络攻击都有可能造成灾难性的后果。例如,核武器控制系统就与军事C4I相连。正如对国防部网络、数据库和网站进行入侵那样,几乎任何网络敌人都能对军用计算机系统发动网络攻击。由于军用计算机系统是国家C4I的核心,因此,对这些目标的成功攻击将会对美国安全构成严重威胁。

 

Rough Mandarin Chinese Translation:

Network warfare the threat posed by weapons systems

German writer, "On War" of Carl? von? Clausewitz (Carl Von Clausewitz) the definition of war is "... violence aimed at forcing our enemy obey our wishes ... To fully achieve this a goal, we must lift the enemy armed, the lifting of the enemy armed hostile parties most directly target ... ". This definition is no longer able to explain the modern full-spectrum war. With the extensive use of today's software systems do not attack a country has become a reality through violent means, which also confirms the latter part of the definition of Clausewitz, namely: "lifting of the enemy armed. In recent years, the theory and application of network warfare has been a great development. Although network warfare and information systems, the article discusses the impact of network warfare weapons systems.

  A war, no violence "network" the term used to describe mechanical or electronic systems to replace human control system. In this article, the term includes the software for the control system of tools. Network warfare, in the case of physical attacks, and therefore rely heavily on the use of software systems (network), the country's most vulnerable without violence war damage.

  In conventional war, the object of attack is mainly concentrated the substance part in a system (such as: military personnel, weapons, facilities and vehicles). The purpose of the war was basically to damage and destroy these targets. Attack these targets is considered to be the primary means of "lifting of the enemy armed". From a strategic point of view, the reason to attack these targets because they are part of a larger system, including:

 

  Manufacturing system (through strategic bombing attacks). Supply system (through interdiction bombing attack) command and control system (by blitzkrieg attacks) in each case, the purpose of elimination of a part to the impact in its entirety, even if the attacks did not destroy the entire program, at least will give the system caused by combat losses Members. Although the military's goal is to crack down on some units in this program, but the ultimate goal is to attack the program itself. These procedures is the main enemy and the enemy's "center of gravity". By attacking this center of gravity, the ability of the enemy to launch a war will be lifted. " If not to use force and attack the enemy's center of gravity, a country can not use violence case was defeated, and this ability will make war transformed. For example, if an attacker can not damage the machine or cause casualties, destruction of the enemies of the manufacturing system, then the effect will destroy all the ingredients of the system is the same, even to achieve better results. Machine parts and personnel can be replaced, but to destroy the entire system will cause more lasting damage. If the attack resulted in the paralysis of the military system, this country can not be found and the fight against this threat, then this country will not be able to protect themselves. If the success of the entire system and procedures (not component) attack, then this country will yield in the case of no force or a declaration of war.

  Second, the evolution of information and network systems in the early stages of development of the Global Information Network, the definition of network warfare is based on information related to the principles of the implementation of military operations. In other words, the term is used to describe the destruction of military communications and military coordination, or the contrary, the use of information and communication systems to gain a military advantage. This definition, however, is no longer able to generalize the entire contents of the modern network warfare. With the widespread use of low-cost computer processor, memory, and other computer hardware and software has been used to control all types of uses and specifications of the system. In addition, with access to computer networks worldwide popularity of all types of systems, including civilian facilities (such as: electric power, petroleum, natural gas, transportation and water treatment systems, etc.) have been networked through a global network.

  Three weapons platform weaknesses in network warfare weapons platform is increasingly dependent on software, computer hardware, and battlefield network, and thus are vulnerable to attack from the network. Although these weapons systems security measures also continue to strengthen with the development of network technology and the use of, but they are subject to the possibility of network attacks is also growing. The aircraft is the use of the network to the best example of the weapon system.

  In the past, the performance of an aircraft depends on the hardware (i.e., the physical structure of the aircraft). And in recent years, advanced aircraft, more than 75% of the aircraft's performance depends on the software.

  If there is no software, the aircraft will not be able to control or achieve the desired performance standards. For example, F-16 fighter planes in flight speeds below Mach 1 is unstable if there is no software support flight control system, the aircraft will not be able to control. Boeing 777 and Airbus 330 aircraft with a software flight control system, without having to manually control; these aircraft flight performance depends entirely on a digital flight control system.

  In some cases, through the software performance of the aircraft can be limited does not rely on physical configuration, Therefore, the aircraft dependent and non-dependent on the hardware to the software, are increasing. For example, the F-22 fighter planes during high angle of attack flight software thrust vector control and flight control system to be manipulated. In addition, the flight of modern aircraft, engines, and weapons delivery systems by telex control system control. Soley by mechanical hardware control systems are now being replaced by the software control.

  The software also determines the power or effectiveness of modern weapons systems, is the basis of a number of different systems network integration. Today, however, these network software system is very vulnerable to network attacks, network attacks and network vulnerabilities are increasing.

  The network warfare doctrine still not prominent software major role in military combat systems; As discussed above, many software and software-controlled systems have become the weapons systems being developed integral part. Is an example of the weapons systems of the F-22 fighter aircraft control system of its software with its integrated information system into one.

  F-22 fighter is not a closed system; during flight, external information system will be continuously updated and integrated into the F-22's combat system. With external links, not only is the information system of the F-22, but also the basic software and hardware systems are likely to be attacked. Joint doctrine (Joint Pub) currently mainly involved in information warfare doctrine is integrated in the F-22 system into the external command, control, communications, computers and intelligence (C4I) security, and software-based F-22 the system is its internal systems are vulnerable to cyber attacks. Our combat regulations must take into account these weaknesses of the offensive and defensive measures. Although non-security classification regulations and rules of the United States Department of Defense is not sufficiently stressed cyberwar, but there is still hope. Cyberspace issued in 2006 to combat the national military strategy "correctly reflects the network warfare policy specifically. Unfortunately, these policies are not fully throughout the regulations of the Department of Defense.

  , Network warfare target overall network warfare goals, including networks, digital systems, facilities, and all of the information, communication and control systems behavior. Therefore, the Department of Defense, any military control by software systems are vulnerable to cyber attacks.

  The first step of network attacks, network penetration; software network systems are vulnerable to infiltration. Upon completion of the network penetration, information transfer, destruction and changes in (cyber attacks) by to affect organizational system. The software within the system may be manipulated by the software control of the system can be damaged or network control (i.e. manipulate). The software itself can be copied, destroy or rewrite (cyber attacks). Military systems, including database, network warfare is often the target of attacks. The possibility of cyber attacks on the weapons system is the highest in wartime, but in peacetime to be relatively low.

  Military targets in command, control, communications, computers and intelligence. Modern military system is inseparable from the command, control, communications, computers and intelligence (C4I), military operations can not be without the support of these systems in terms of coordination and communication. Military C4I system is the weakest part, also in the Department of Defense regulations involving the most important part of the network. U.S. joint operational doctrines JP 3-13 and JP 3-13.1 provisions related content and information warfare. C4I system is an extremely complex one of the Commonwealth, from mainframe computers to personal computers, from radio to radar. Military C4I local area network (LAN) interface with the Internet, bases and organizations, civilian and military communications systems, navigation systems, and various frequency radio connection. Military C4I systems interconnected, and therefore particularly vulnerable to cyber-attacks. Network intrusion may occur and will affect many systems in many nodes. For example, network warfare can affect radar, missile and communication control system. The missile can not launch, or change direction, lead to the launch site. Addition can paralyze or destroy the command and control networks, global positioning systems and mobile communication systems.

  Of these systems and their interactions are so complex that no modern military organizations to fully guard against the potential hazards of any network intrusion. Any type of network attacks may have resulted in disastrous consequences. For example, nuclear weapons control system is connected with the military C4I. As the Department of Defense network, database and website, invasion, almost any network enemy can launch cyber-attacks on military computer systems. The military computer system is the country the C4I of the core, and therefore, the successful attack on these goals will pose a serious threat to American security.

 

美国目前正与盟国军队一道联合作战,所使用的装备和系统在技术上不一定先进,没有运用最新的安全标准。军队间的任何联合和沟通都有可能暴露出更多的安全隐患。

  武器系统。美国国防部目前的作战条令没有充分涉及军事硬件系统可能受到的网络攻击,如飞机、车辆等需要软件来控制的装备。正如前面所指出的,F-22就是由网络控制的战机(见图2)。无论是对飞机系统的直接网络入侵,还是通过破坏与其相连接的C4I系统,所造成的灾难性后果都将无异于将其击落。为现代作战飞机提供数据的C4I系统一旦受到网络渗透,就将为网络袭击、网络操纵和网络攻击打开方便之门。由于诸如民用“全球空中交通管制系统”(GATM)、军用“战术目标网络技术系统”(TTNT)和F-22战机的“机间飞行数据链”(IFDL)等许多系统都会自动更新飞机的信息和情报,因此它们会不知不觉地使飞机受到网络渗透。情报、导航和通信系统相互连接,并向或从飞机的许多系统输入或输出大量信息,包括飞行控制系统(通过自动驾驶仪)、推进系统(通过自动油门)、雷达系统、主报警系统和环境控制系统等。

  网络渗透者可使用正确的控制程序、数据输入或改变程序来使系统造成不同程度的损害,从使飞机飞离航线到重写飞行控制软件等。无人机受控于千里之外,因此对无人机的控制有可能通过网络被劫持。还有许多其它武器系统都使用类似的装备和控制系统,因而也都会受到网络攻击。

  七、呼唤新作战条令以上事实表明,国防部和美国需要制定一个更全面的作战条令,涉及所有形式网络战,包括对武器系统的网络攻击。要对所有这些网络安全威胁进行分类,为新的作战理论制定一个新的框架,在这方面还有很长的路要走。但第一步是要制定出一个包括了当前和未来的所有领域网络战威胁的作战条令。

  因此,我们面临的挑战是调动必要的人力、物力和财力,为所有软件控制的武器系统提供强大的安全保障。

 

  附录1:网络战定义美国国防部的《军事与相关术语词典》对网络空间和网络空间作战的定义如下:

  网络空间——在信息环境下,由互依赖的信息技术设施网络组成的、包括因特网、电信网、计算机系统和嵌入式处理器和控制器在内的全球领域。

  网络空间战——主要目的是在或通过网络空间来达成目标的网络能力运用。 这类作战包括计算机网络战和运用和保护“全球信息网格”(GIG)。

  附录2:网络术语新解网络战争(CyW)——旨在迫使敌方服从我国意愿的、用以攻击敌方系统软件控制程序的所有行动。 CyW包括以下网络攻击模式: 网络渗透、网络操纵、网络攻击和网络袭击。

  网络渗透(CyI)——突破软件控制系统的防御,从而操纵、攻击或袭击该系统。

  网络操纵(CyM)——在完成网络渗透之后,在系统保持完好无损的情况下通过软件来控制该系统,然后使用该系统的能力来进行破坏。例如,使用系统的软件来关掉电源。

  网络攻击(CyA)——在完成网络渗透之后,对系统内的软件和数据进行破坏,或对系统进行攻击以损坏系统能力。包括病毒或通过过量的数据传输来使系统过载。

  网络袭击(CyR)——在完成网络渗透之后,在不损坏系统的情况下操纵系统或获取系统内的数据,达到数据转移、毁坏或更改之目的。

  网络攻击——包括CyI、CyM、CyA 或 CyR 的所有活动。

  网络犯罪(CyC)——不以影响国家安全为目的的网络攻击,或会影响到国家安全的进一步网络行为。网络战概念也适用于网络犯罪。网络犯罪是一个严重的问题。为避免国际性灾难的发生,一个国家应区分网络犯罪与网络战之间的区别。 对网络犯罪的定义与网络战有类似的地方,但有两个主要区别。首先,网络犯罪不是在官方认可的政治实体之间进行;而网络战则是在遵循战争法的实体之间进行。其次,网络犯罪的目的不是要迫使敌方来服从本国意愿,而迫使敌方服从本国意愿才是网络战的目的。网络犯罪可能带来如同网络战一样的严重后果,但国家政策应注意把握区分两者间的区别,以防因犯罪分子的过失而对国家进行报复。关键是,在网络领域中网络战和网络犯罪之间的区别常常难以区分,网络战士也不像战场上的战士那样容易辨认。一个国家在政治上也没有多少回旋余地来犯很多错误。

  蓄意网络战攻击(IA)——任何以网络手段来故意影响国家安全(网络战)的攻击或有害于国家安全的进上步行为。包括无意实施者在蓄意实施者的唆使下实施的网络攻击。[参阅“非蓄意网络战攻击(UA)]。IA 等同于战争;它是在战争层次上国家政策的体现。而 UA 则基本属于网络犯罪。UA 的实施者可能是普通的黑客,也可能是职业网络罪犯,但他们的目的都是获取个人利益,而不是以某个国家为攻击目标。但这不等于说非蓄意网络攻击不会影响国家安全,或不会造成蓄意攻击那样的严重后果。

  蓄意网络战实施者(I-actors)——故意实施网络战的个体(网络操作员、网络群体、网络战士和网络部队)。

  非蓄意网络战实施者(U-actors)——实施可能会影响到国家安全的网络攻击、但又没有意识到其行为可能会带来不良后果的个体。非蓄意实施者也许会受到蓄意实施者的影响,但却没有意识到自己是受人操纵来参与了网络战。非蓄意实施者包括所有实施CyI、CyM、CyA和CyR而无意影响国家安全、或无意通过进一步行为来影响国家安全的个体。这一群体也包括涉及CYC的个人、记者和工业间谍。记者和工业间谍对系统构成的威胁应引起高度重视,包括由 CyI 导致的 LUA。

  非蓄意网络战攻击(UA)——任何不以影响国家安全(网络犯罪)为目的、通过网络手段实施的攻击。

 

Rough Mandarin Chinese Translation:

is now, together with the allied forces joint operations, equipment and systems used in technically do not necessarily state-of-the-art, did not have to use the latest safety standards. Any joint and communication between the armed forces may have exposed more security risks.

 

  Weapons systems. Combat regulations of the U.S. Department of Defense did not fully involved in military hardware systems may be subject to cyber attacks, such as the need software to control the aircraft, vehicles and other equipment. As noted earlier, F-22 fighter is controlled by the network (see Figure 2). Both aircraft systems, network intrusion, or by the destruction of its connected to the C4I system, the disastrous consequences are tantamount to bringing it down. C4I systems to provide data for modern combat aircraft penetration by the network, will cyber attacks, network manipulation and open the door to cyber attacks. As civilian "global air traffic control system (GATM), the military" tactical target network technology system "(TTNT) and F-22 fighter flying machines between data link" (IFDL), and many other systems will automatically update the aircraft information and intelligence, so they will unwittingly aircraft penetration by the network. Intelligence, navigation and communication systems are connected to each other, to or from many of the aircraft system input or output of a large amount of information, including flight control system (autopilot) propulsion system (autothrottle), radar systems, the main alarm systems and environmental control system.

  Network penetration by using the correct control program, a data input or a change in the program to make the system to cause varying degrees of damage to the fly route to rewrite from the aircraft flight control software. UAV is controlled by the thousands of miles away, the control of the UAV may be hijacked by the network. There are many other weapons systems use similar equipment and control systems, and therefore will be subject to cyber attacks.

  , Calling the new operational doctrines above facts show that the Department of Defense and the United States need to develop a more comprehensive doctrine, involving all forms of network warfare, including cyber attacks on weapons systems. To classify all these network security threats, to develop a new framework for the new combat theories, there is still a long way to go in this regard. But the first step is to work out an operational doctrines, including the current and future in all areas of network warfare threat.

  Therefore, the challenge we face is to mobilize the necessary human, material and financial resources, to provide strong security for all software-controlled weapons systems.

 

  Appendix 1: the network warfare defines the U.S. Department of Defense military and related terminology dictionary "cyberspace and cyberspace operations are defined as follows:

  Cyberspace - in the information environment, inter-dependent network IT facilities, including the Internet, telecommunications networks, computer systems, and embedded processors and controllers, including the global field.

  Cyberspace warfare - the main purpose is to network capacity use in or through cyberspace to achieve their goals. Such operations, including computer network warfare and the use and protection of the Global Information Grid (GIG).

  Appendix 2: the new network terminology solution cyberwarfare (CyW) - aimed at forcing the enemy obey our willingness to attack enemy systems software control program for all actions. CyW attack mode includes the following network: network penetration, network manipulation, cyber attacks and cyber attacks.

  Network penetration (CyI) - breakthrough software control system of defense, which manipulated to attack or to attack the system.

  Network manipulation (CyM) - network penetration, in the case of the system remains intact through the software to control the system, and then use the system's ability to carry out sabotage. For example, using the system's software to turn off the power.

  Network attacks (CyA) - After completing the network penetration, system software and data destruction, or attack on the system the ability to damage the system. Including the ability to make a virus or to overload the system through the excess data transmission.

  Cyber attacks (CyR) - After completing the network penetration, the operating system in the case of no damage to the system or access to data within the system to achieve data transfer, destruction or change of purpose.

  Network attacks - including all CyI, CyM, CyA or CyR activities.

  Cybercrime (CyC) - does not affect national security for the purpose of network attacks, or will affect the national security network behavior. Network war concept also applies to the cyber crime. Cyber crime is a serious problem. To avoid international disaster occurred, a country should distinguish the difference between cybercrime and network warfare. The definition of cyber crime and network warfare similar, but there are two major differences. First, cybercrime is not officially recognized political entities; network warfare is in compliance with the laws of war entities. Secondly, the purpose of cyber crime is not to force the enemy to obey their wishes, and forcing the enemy to obey their wishes is the purpose of network warfare. Cybercrime may bring serious consequences as network warfare, but the national policy should pay attention to distinguish the difference between the two to prevent the country due to the fault of the criminals in retaliation. The key difference between cyberwarfare and cybercrime in the network field is often difficult to distinguish between cyber warriors unlike the soldiers on the battlefield as easily recognizable. A country in political, not how much leeway to make lots of mistakes.

  Deliberately network warfare attack (IA) - a network means to intentionally affect national security (network warfare) attacks, or walk as harmful to national security into. No intention of the perpetrators of deliberate perpetrators instigation implementation of network attacks. [See "unintentional network warfare attack (UA)] IA equivalent to war; It is a manifestation of the national policy level of war. The UA is basic belonging cybercrime. Implementers of UA ordinary hackers, it could be professional cyber criminals, but their purpose is to obtain personal benefits, rather than a country but this does not mean that non-deliberate cyber attacks will not affect the national security, or not caused by deliberate attack as the serious consequences of the attack.

  Deliberately network war implementers (I-actors) - individual intentionally network warfare (network operator, network groups, cyber warriors and network forces).

  Unintentional network warfare implementers (U-actors) - the implementation may affect the national security of the network attack, but do not realize that their behavior may have adverse consequences for the individual. Unintentional implementers may be deliberate implementers, but did not realize that they are manipulated by others to participate in the network war. Unintentional implementers include all implementation CyI, CyM, CyA, and CyR and is not intended to affect national security or unintentionally by further acts to affect the national security of the individual. This group also includes individuals involved CYC, reporters, and industrial espionage. Reporter and industrial espionage on the threat posed by the system should pay close attention, including lead by CyI the LUA.

  Unintentional network warfare attack (UA) - does not affect national security (cyber crime) for the purpose of implementation of the attack through the network means.

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