2012-3-08 11:21 来源：黑基网
Rough Mandarin Chinese Translation:
Comment on cyber warfare capabilities of the Chinese army
Since 2005, the Chinese army is more and more the number of activities for the invasion of the U.S. network system. Network intrusion activities may be intelligence gathering activities for the U.S. military system, or to find weaknesses in the U.S. military network systems, or implantation of the virus in the U.S. network system. Thus, once the Sino-US conflict, the Chinese army immediately in a dominant position.
If these intrusions activities the offensive actions carried out by the U.S. military system, the U.S. military network system failure or destroyed. In fact, the computer network reconnaissance activities is in line with the traditional strategy that wins soldiers first victory before seeking battle, while defeated warriors go to war first and then seek to win. Find enemy weaknesses before combat operations through network reconnaissance activities fits well with this strategy.
This article illustrates the support the Chinese army launched a network intrusion action military theory, especially on China's military appointment e-strategy to carry out activities such as computer network operations and enable patriotic hackers. The article also reviews the network intrusion activities of the Chinese army in recent years, and look at the the army most famous theory who provided information warfare to comment publicly.
Chinese troops continue to practice rich theory. Computer network warfare become a strategic part of the activities carried out by the Chinese army in peacetime. The U.S. military expressed deep concern about the purpose of the event in the military invasion, it a reconnaissance activities, or for implantation of Trojan viruses to the network system of the U.S. military and its allies, in wartime, to make these systems paralysis or destroyed. With the understanding of the outside world the Chinese armed forces of the development of information warfare, network intrusion intention of causing the U.S. military and its allies questioned.
Network warfare forces outside do not know the real reason for the Chinese army to carry out network incursions, but the military forward for published articles or given some explanation. The application of new information technologies and the army in the Chinese army to carry out the construction of information technology are military constitutes a huge impact, particularly those affected by the impact of the technology used by the United States against Iraq . The impact of these technologies on the Chinese military theory, the Chinese army, a country only in information warfare prior to seize the initiative, or to establish information superiority or control of information, it may achieve the victory of the war, which requires in combat to carry out reconnaissance and intelligence-gathering activities, and to lay the foundation for the use of network forces.
The Chinese army has been pursuing a strategy of "active defense", that is not to be the first to attack others, but once attacked, it will be immediately returned fire. With the advent of the Internet over the past few years, this strategy has undergone some changes. The information described in a large number of public network warfare units of the Chinese army offensive network warfare operations. Chinese army has publicly acknowledged the need to carry out offensive network warfare, which reflects greatly exceeded the traditional military thinking. In addition, the Chinese military have publicly declared that the U.S. military reliance on computer systems is a great need to study the weaknesses. If the Chinese army to weaken the U.S. military has the advantage in the information warfare, it must study this vulnerability. To understand the Chinese army from defensive mentality to the offensive thinking evolution, of the development of information warfare from 1999 be explained.
Network attack strategy development in 1999. Military theory circles began about 10 years ago to discuss the information offensive operations, the 1999 Zhu Wenquan and Mrs Chan a coauthor of "information warfare" a chapter devoted to description of the pre-emptive attack "to carry out the camouflage. The authors point out the need to carry out pre-emptive attacks to destroy enemy computer attack troops. The preemptive attack activities include network surveillance activities, to collect enemy C4I systems performance, the purpose of the system structure of the information, as well as electronic warfare and weapons systems. The authors point out that, from a broader sense, the computer information reconnaissance is part of the computer information attack. They pointed out that: In order to carry out computer reconnaissance, computer information network can be established in peacetime, and the identity access network to carry out reconnaissance activities. Can borrow the power of computer experts, especially the strength of the hackers perform computer reconnaissance missions. Hackers access to military information from a computer network is a very effective way. Should be familiar with the network protocol and the accumulation of the network intelligence.
The authors pointed out that the Chinese army has established a small-scale computer offensive and defensive the confrontation forces, to the implementation of network attacks. Forces to carry out the training subjects, including how to design and organize the activities of virus attack, how to penetrate into enemy computer networks. The attacking forces must continue to study and analyze the enemy's intentions. They must also be able to Quweicunzhen to determine the location of the the enemy computer control center.
In November 1999, the "Liberation Army Daily" published an article pointed out that the Chinese military may need to set up an independent information in addition to the land, sea, and air force war military services, network Army (not confirmed that China has set up a military services). The main task of the force to protect the network's sovereignty and the implementation of network operations. Network warfare elements include offensive and defensive techniques, scanning technology, deception, and recovery techniques. Spoofing technology can help one's own the camouflaged enemy commanders thus occupying network.
In 2000. Point of view for reconnaissance and strategy activities originated in 2000. "Liberation Army Daily" published an article, above the army forces should focus on reconnaissance and early warning, command and coordination and strategic application. "Chinese military science magazine published another article pointed out that the use of the strategy, creating opportunities and favorable opportunity to-deploy viruses.
In 1999, the General Staff Operations Department, Dai Qingming General pointed out that the network attack and defense is equally important, because to win the war initiative is to proactively fight with the enemy, and to obtain information superiority. Published an article on the military science China should establish that "active offensive information warfare perspective. He actively attack is crucial to maintain control of information, to seize the initiative and weaken the enemy advantage. The offensive measures can destroy the enemy's information system.
Wearing General also pointed out that, taken before waging war, information warfare strategy can be as sharp sword to undermine and weaken the dominant position of the enemy, at the same time to protect themselves or to enhance one's own combat capability. Information warfare as an invisible combat capability, you can avoid a powerful enemy direct combat. If the goal of information warfare is the use of strategy David and Goliath, this measure is Chinese asymmetric means to fight the U.S. high-tech. The strategy will become China's strategic culture has always stressed the "magic weapons". In August 2000, wearing the generals on the military science article discusses the development of electronic counsel, and integrated network electronic warfare capabilities. There are some other articles of offensive operations. In March 2000, publish an article on the website of the computer and information technology "to discuss the need to set up a network confrontation team to carry out a network attack and defense actions. In September 2000, the article pointed out that the Chinese army has established information warfare department in the headquarters of the structure in.
In 2001. Published by the National Defense University in 2001 of "strategic" offensive information warfare are discussed. The book pointed out that the strategic information warfare "to attack, but should not only offensive but also defensive. The book also recommends using the strategy of pre-emptive attack and seize the initiative. Actively launch information offensive to seize key battlefield information superiority and initiative. Seen in this light, the ideology of offensive information warfare is not only used in wartime, but also used in peacetime.
"Strategic," also discusses the form of network warfare. In a battle of annihilation, before the attack weapon system, you must attack node disrupt network. Information and protection system is often the first target to break the combat balance situation. Actively to destroy the network and weaken the strength of the enemy launched a war of annihilation. Ground information warfare facilities, transmission system, should the order to destroy the accepted platform and information transfer systems. Such attacks should be the root of the problem. While this offensive style should be used in times of war, and also applies to peacetime.
Information technology to promote the development of the strategic thinking of the Chinese army. The Chinese military academia Now think, not pre-emptive strikes party will lose the initiative in the information warfare. In modern warfare, the battle by battle or fighting possible to achieve the objectives of the war. This idea for the Chinese military reconnaissance activities carried out in the usual network and provide a further impetus to prepare to win future wars victory.
In 2002. Dai Qingming General pointed out that in 2002 the Chinese army should give priority to the purchase of offensive information warfare equipment, and to seize and maintain the initiative. In August 2002, the "Liberation Army Daily" article pointed out cyber attacks several characteristics, namely premeditated embed permanent virus (such as software), pollution (for the quality of the information), strong (referring to compulsory modulation of the computer virus the electromagnetic wave), and division (referring to the powerful regenerative ability of the virus).
In 2003. On the 10th National People's Congress, the People's Liberation Army on behalf of the team representatives revealed that the first branch of high-tech information warfare units will be set up in Beijing in 2003. The force will be equipped with high-tech equipment, network warfare can be carried out on the Internet, as well as the transmission of data through remote sensing satellites. However, the information warfare units and information warfare units in 1999 "information warfare" What's the difference is not very clear.
Wearing generals in 2003, and again stressed the importance of the implementation of information attacks, he pointed out that information warfare is a pilot (before other actions) and throughout the war (and continued throughout the war stage). Dai generals also think, The intelligence war before the fighting began, psychological warfare and the war of deception activities than no obstacle to plan and carry out the more important combat operations. To this end, the information war before making plans or developing battle plan when started.
Chinese Academy of Military Sciences network attack activities of the reserve forces. The article pointed out that the formation of Information storm forces personnel, personnel must be selected from the local communications, telecommunications and financial sectors, research institutes and higher education sectors. Must develop a strategy to improve the deficiencies of the system.
Chinese military information warfare parent Shen Weiguang pointed out in the 2003 book, "password" information security, military information security professional should be opened in the information security universities, the professional should teach more than 20 subjects, including hackers, network intrusion detection and defensive attack, attack and defense tactics, program design and application of computer viruses, network security system structure, scanning network hidden problems.
2005. Dai generals assigned to the 400 Information tactical language definition, these terms are mostly associated with the pre-emptive strike or reconnaissance activities in the theory of information warfare Guide, published in 2005. Such as computer network warfare is defined as: computer network warfare, including reconnaissance computer network, computer network attack and computer network defense. Instruments of warfare, including a variety of viruses, logic bombs, and chip weapons. Computer network warfare as a threat to the power and the instruments of war, the enemy of political, economic and military can have enormous and far-reaching impact. It is also an important means of warfare poorly equipped army to fight high-tech powerful enemies.
Dai the Generals also discussed the importance of conducting network warfare emphasized as information concept of deterrence in the strategic level, subject to further consideration and development. "Military Strategy" to spend an entire chapter devoted to introduce information deterrent. The book explains how information deterrence is to help achieve national and military objectives. Information deterrence tools, including information technology (hardware and software innovations), weapons (disguised or false intelligence) information source the repression (similar interference).
, A book published in 2005, "War strategic theory, Yao Zhi strategy has been developed to technical factors in the decision status this step, the use of technology has become strategic. Any decoupling strategic and high-tech weapons are no use value. This also means that China must develop an effective counter-strategy: that is proficient in the use of the information superhighway, manufacturing misleading information to spread the fog of war, interfere with and destroy the enemy strategic perception is necessary, which use strategic control enemy. Proficient in the use of electronic camouflage, electronic interference, virus attacks, and space-based satellite jamming and deception is necessary, so the enemy draw the wrong conclusions, so as to achieve the purpose of strategic deception. Although these technologies are designed for wartime, but they can be used as a means of usual preventive and pre-emptive attack.
Yao pointed out that information warfare has changed the traditional attack, capture, control and defense of the significance, because accurate attack to destroy the enemy's entire war system. The enemy's strategic information systems has become the main target of the attack. All combat activities around the battlefield advantage in the information superiority is the basis of battlefield advantage. Direct to destroy the enemy's will instead of destroying the enemy's military operational capability. Chinese army such information concerns lead in the next war will be a completely new way.
In 2007. March 13, 2007, the "Liberation Army Daily" published an article saying the dialectical relationship between the offensive and defensive network warfare must be located in the equally important position. Attack to intimidate any potential enemy, the defense can stop any attack. The article pointed out, the only active defense, in order to gain the initiative in the network war. So China should be the development of network technology and systems to carry out the appropriate network defense operations research, tireless search for such a pre-emptive opportunity.
Network intrusion activities over the past few years, the Chinese army's combat capability more powerful information. Chinese army network attack activities not only for the United States , but also for Japan , Taiwan , Germany and the United Kingdom . Due to the nature of computer network operations, we do not know that the army of the United States launched a number of times information warfare the reconnaissance or intrusion activities, we do not know the true intentions of these invasive activities not The situation described below are open channels reported: According to "Time" magazine reported that, in 1999, U.S. planes bombed Beijing's embassy in Belgrade, as well as the 2001 collision event, Chinese hackers have with their U.S. counterparts to open network war. In the years after 2003, the U.S. government server by a series of hacker attacks, code-named "Titan Rain" (Titan Rain), the FBI said sources. "Defense News" reported that China attempted to use the the laser blinding United States a satellite. Federal Computer Week reports that Chinese hackers invaded the website of the U.S. Naval War College system offline. According to the U.S. National Public Radio reports, the Chinese anti-satellite missile to destroy an old-fashioned meteorological satellite. In October 2007 and November, the Chinese mainland hackers plan to penetrate to the the Xi Naxi state of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory computer firewall by sending false messages. Japan and Taiwan media reported that the mainland hackers because Japan's anti-China remarks and Taiwan declared independence and implementation of retaliatory cyber attacks. September 5, 2007, the Kansas City Star newspaper reported that China denied that the implementation of any national network attacks, Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman said, the Chinese government has consistently opposed cybercrime, including hacking. China will be in accordance with the law against hacking, the U.S. Department of Defense computer is unfounded and that the Chinese hacking. U.S. Defense Department spokesman pointed out that the penetration of the Chinese people, but the British "Financial Times" quoted unnamed U.S. senior official said the activities of cyber attacks from the Chinese army.
Germany , a magazine reported that the Chinese army has penetrated to the computer system of the German government. The report said, look at the footprints left by the hackers, from Guangzhou and Lanzhou.
Development Network militia a strategy called Collateral. The Chinese military's use of patriotic hackers on the line with this strategy. "Time" magazine article discusses the Chinese military's use of network intrusion program (NCPH) in order to achieve this goal. The article pointed out that in recent years, the Chinese army launched nationwide recruitment campaign, trying to find the most powerful hackers. This movement is carried out through the race to provide large sums of cash bonuses. The winner will receive a large bonus and participation in the military organization, network attack, defense training. From the size and complexity of the activities of the game can be seen that the Chinese military efforts to establish a network of militia. In addition, a branch of the United States California Internet security company VeriSign iDefense's report said the, NCPH 35 manufacturing program, Microsoft Office software vulnerabilities implanted Trojans and local control of the infected computer, and can be used for transporting files via the Internet, e- data sheets and other text files. The companies accused the NCPH get thousands of non-confidential documents. These activities are also in line with the core of the Chinese armed forces pre-emptive.
The people's war theory is equally suitable for patriotic hacking. The people's war of the Internet age citizens involved in hacking or attack enemy systems. At present, the 250 hackers brigade. As they carry out a variety of intensive intrusion activities, the corresponding increase in the number of their invasion of the quality of the attack.
Conclusion In the past few years, the Chinese armed forces to actively explore the network actively offensive, network reconnaissance, the theory and practice of network strategy. If China believes that by obtaining information superiority or prevention of network attacks can gain the initiative in the future, the United States may be encountered in this challenge. Although we can be seen from the deployment of the army in its intent, but we are not easy to look at the the military network intrusion activities of intent. They are implanted virus or paralysis of the system, or to carry out reconnaissance activities, we do not know. With the world for the destructive network intrusion activities, efforts to adopt various coping and management measures, the world will enter an uncertain field.
Chinese army pointed out that more emphasis on the principle of offensive information warfare techniques and tactics than traditional combat. For example, a weak army of powerful enemies timely implementation of asymmetric information precisely planned attack. Cause enormous destruction to the enemy. The Chinese army that China's relatively weak, and considers information deterrence, information blockade, information power to create information pollution (electronic camouflage, network deception) Information harassment, node damage, paralysis or entity to destroy offensive operations are in modern conditions the next war with the United States the key to victory.
However, how and when to use the theory of positive offensive, and not just on the United States to carry out network reconnaissance activities, this is not clear. Which is what is worrying. If the theory of the Chinese armed forces who believe that China is only the first attack to weaken the opponent's information advantage, which is not in favor of future cooperation between China and the United States, as well as the peace and stability of the world. However, there is no doubt that China will continue to use the new strategy, and it is linked with the technology in order to achieve the high-tech system to deceive the United States, or prompted U.S. policymakers fault purpose of cognitive processes.