Chinese Report on US Office of Secretary of Defence (OSD) opinion of Chinese Military & Security Developments...解放军报批美涉华军力报告 称内容抄自中国网友
Rough Mandarin Chinese Translation:
Original title [ hair China Military Power Report for the relations between the two armed forces "clogging up" ]
World Wide Web Image: U.S. Department of Defense released the 2013 China Military Power Report, the cover of the upper-left corner of the flag of the U.S. Department of Defense. [Save to album]
In recent years, the U.S. Department of Defense every year issued a military report, to make irresponsible remarks on China's military development and strategic intent even irresponsibly guesswork. The source for the content of the report, As Many experts point out, most of the U.S. crude understand Chinese so-called experts "Ctrl + C" "Ctrl + V" results from the Chinese military website forum. Something on the forum, and more from the users speculation and conjecture, trying to shift the U.S. Department of Defense as a basis where, really slippery ridiculous to!
This year's report is in many ways the previous version is not very different: the focus on the content or the development of China's naval and air forces and the so-called "anti-access / area denial" capacity enhancement; overall tone is still China's military development soon " "China's military development and strategic intent opaque" "China is a threat. Of course, after all, left-enthusiastically participated in this year's report also added some new "spice", can be considered the "Times". Such as "broke" the state of development and performance evaluation of a variety of new weapons, to give priority attention to the Sino-Japanese dispute over the Diaoyu Islands, further renders the so-called Chinese cyber threats.
Data for: 2013 China Military Power Report shows in schematic form the coverage of the People's Liberation Army air defense strength and short-range ballistic missiles in the Taiwan Strait. [Save to album]
At the same time, the report extremely irresponsible accusations against China. To the so-called "China's military power opaque, for example, by the provisions of the United Nations, the Chinese military transparency has long been standard, China's defense white paper just published a formal public designation of the People's Liberation Army 18 Army Army Tactical Operations Forces and Navy, the number of Air Force, "opaque" I really do not know where to talk about. In addition, the content of the report aside aside each year in the United States routinely published the behavior of the Chinese Military Power Report, totally gross interference in China's internal affairs. China has repeatedly stressed that the development of China's military is defensive in nature. Ask, is not directed against any country to strengthen national defense and army building, but also with the United States ware?
This kind of speculation and accusations development and strategic intent of China's military power, the motivation is not self-evident. The one hand, the rendering "China military threat theory" to sow discord between China and other countries, especially the relationship between the neighboring countries to contain China, play off. On the other hand, the United States trumpeted China's military threat to promote its domestic interest groups and arms dealers are not unrelated, it is estimated that U.S. arms manufacturers are already gearing up to count the money.
This time, China Military Power Report, shows once again that the United States is still the Cold War mentality and zero-sum vision look at the relations between the two armed forces, which undoubtedly is not desirable for the development of "equality, mutual benefit and win-win cooperation", the new Sino-US military relations. In fact, after the U.S. has taken a number of beneficial relations between the two armed forces development initiatives, such as the Chinese escort fleet in the Gulf of Aden to hold joint anti-piracy drills to invite China to participate in the 2014 annual military exercises in the Pacific Rim. I hope the United States to the overall situation of the development of relations between the two armed forces to go along this positive trend, stop groundless accusations and speculation, not from time to time to the relations between the two armed forces "clogging up"!
Data for: 2013 China Military Power Report icon. [Save to album]
Data for: 2013 China Military Power Report icon. [Save to album]
Data for: 2013 China Military Power Report, highlight the form of a schematic distribution of Nanjing Military Area Command of the People's Liberation Army troops. [Save to album]
Data for: 2013 China Military Power Report, in schematic form highlight the coverage of the People's Liberation Army strategic strike force. [Save to album]
Data for: 2013 China Military Power Report shows in schematic form the distribution of the seven Military Region of the People's Liberation Army and 19 Army and its mission. [Save to album]
Data for: 2013 China Military Power Report shows in schematic form the distribution of the seven Military Region of the People's Liberation Army air force. [Save to album]
2013-3-01 14:07 来源：南方周末
Global network warfare: Blue Army Red Army Decisive Force
2013-3-01 14:07 Source: Southern Weekend
U.S. network warfare center (picture)
Around the countries in military networks army
China 's Internet outside hacker organizations, institutions as an experimental field.
Offensive and defensive counter-balance, the struggle is never-ending, Cyber Army, network security, China is still lagging behind the Western powers. Change this situation, the need to integrate and coordinate the various advantages of resources.
We try to avoid weaknesses, kill the Trojan blocking the back door, anti-"swarm" to create effective killer. In the case of a whole as well as others, can still win the war.
China should actively seek international voice and participate in the discussion and formulation of the rules of the Internet Security International, prohibit the use of large-scale networks destruction weapons.
Japan's National Police Agency announced on July 11, 2011, its official website in cyber attacks suffered more than three hours in the early morning the day and can not log on. Network warfare surfaced in the media in recent years, the overwhelming coverage.
In mid-May, the United States issued a foreword by President Barack Obama's strategy paper "cyberspace International strategy report, for the first time developed a comprehensive international policy of the United States for cyberspace to enhance network security to economic security and military security equally important position.
"This step is not easy to step, the United States felt in the network arms race has clout. "PLA information warfare-known experts the lobulation told reporters.
Whether by coincidence, the report come out nine days after China revealed the existence of the "network the Blues. The future networks warrior how to play? Chinese network confrontation strength of exactly how? How do we deal with the information age cyberspace Game?
Pictured British participation in the "Digital Storm III" cyber attack exercises.
Battlefield without gunpowder
The virtual space of the war, similar to the scene in "Pirates of the dream space": the enemy access to the traffic signal control system of a country, the road north and south, east to west at the same time give the green light, the the comic big crash occurred, traffic gridlock; blackout the city without water stop gas, infrastructure paralyzed, residents living in dire straits. "If Guangzhou parked on the two days of water, that is definitely not one way or another as simple as a car mineral water relief. Blackout make one or two thousand people called not being heard by anyone." An unnamed senior PLA The generals told the Southern Weekend reporter said, countries have begun to build their own network deterrence "system based on the concept of" nuclear deterrence ".
The war in cyberspace, the subversion of the traditional war philosophy, blurring the distinction between war and peacetime. "In the past your warships into the territorial waters of fire, fire you combat aircraft flew into my airspace, I think I declared war. Every day playing networked war, who are soldiers? Hit what scale be regarded as a declaration of war? "Secretary Guangya, professor at the National Defense University, believes that this is the invisible new frontier of the country, the war of the future will expand around it, who has mastered the system and network rights, grasps the initiative in the war.
In the race, the lead is still the United States .
"The New York Times reported, in September 2010, the United States and Israel , "Earthquake Network" virus penetrated the computer systems of Iran's Bushehr nuclear power plant, seriously affect the progress of the construction of nuclear reactors. The news that the U.S. military has developed a of of 2,000 multiple network virus weapons, "ammunition" for computer viruses, worms, Trojan horses and other.
The other countries are also actively preparing for war. Japan Defense Agency set up a five thousand network warfare units, specializing in network attack and defense, and developed a variety of network warfare weapons. The British also network weapons development, and listed as a national top secret. Russia , Israel , South Korea , India , North Korea and other countries and Taiwan , have set up a Cyber Army.
. Pictured PLA officers and men in the network classroom learning.
Chinese "how to network the Blues" real situation?
The People's Liberation Army has completed the first network warfare base, which is part of its efforts to strengthen the army in the era of information warfare digital security
Strengthen network security research network confrontation law, the drills should set red, blue side camp to find out the weak points in the confrontation. "The lobulation said, the United States can be a big way to the organization's network of more than 60,000 combat forces, China carried out a number of The network protection necessary preparations reasonable. China's network security forces, and is attributed to the headquarters and each branch of the military the information confrontation departments, yet successful Army.
Dr. Li Lei, Sun Yat-sen University Network and Information Technology Center claimed that the network the Blues "can be seen as a" fire brigade "to deal with network intrusion, similar to the anti-terrorist team.
"Cyber Army, network security building, China lags far behind the Western powers. "Secretary Guangya, Chinese military information construction period is divided into three stages: in the 1980s, started from the Air Force air defense systems; 1990s, each branch of the military decentralized construction each development; since the beginning of the new century, the promotion of joint operations and interoperability. In parallel with the construction of network security.
The network construction Army is countries the general trend, but the outside world, " Cyber Army "of particular concern with ideological factors, with Chinese-made aircraft carrier, stealth aircraft to become the focal point is exactly the same. China has developed rapidly in these years, the United States feel that it really constitutes a threat, always focused on China, the clamor for the China threat theory, other Western countries followed the United States to go. "Secretary Guangya that have the same psychological Korea claimed North Korea 30000 Cyber Army is exaggerated - the Korean national strength is not allowed; network warfare is not a mere human wave tactics to win.
Figure: scene of the inner workings of the U.S. Air Force Network Warfare Command
Who is threatening whom?
Chinese hackers are known as "the world's largest network attacking force, often as a" Chinese Cyber Army ", but a number of Chinese experts said that this is a misunderstanding, Chinese hackers impossible" dedication, "the world's biggest threat.
The Chinese hackers first began to study expert Xu Rongsheng judgment, China's foreign attacks, hackers, and more students, there is no real master. "Google by hackers attack also was annoyed, to set fire to the Chinese, but could not find evidence you say I attack you, where is the evidence? Evidence is not tenable?" Xu Rongsheng Internet experts in recent years with the United States In exchange the hearts of American experts is very clear, Chinese hackers, experienced Honker from the early to the black industry chain profiteers evolution: early black Government website, then using hacking tools to make money.
" Many of China 's network, resources, and no one would like to look at the here and steal a little something Chinese Internet hackers outside organizations, institutions as an experimental field dry the things they wanted to do this. "People's Liberation Army IT Security Research Center, Chief Engineer Li Jingchun many attacks as a springboard.
" China 's top hackers no more than three digits, in addition are huge 'strength of the masses' - Chinese hackers threshold is low, mostly some minor 'furry thieves' online hacker software download Chinese interface scan a foreign network segment, that is an attack, but the attacks are not really effective. "Lei told the Southern Weekend reporter said.
Ning Jiajun, Director of the State Information Center, the Committee of Experts little hack to combat let foreign frequent moves, it is very atmospheric, but also in violation of international rules.
China has become the biggest victim of hacking attacks. In 2000, China's power grid by outside interference, some power plants can not work properly; Zhengzhou railway freight system is also subject to interference, all vehicle scheduling impact. However, China has no external publicity. "Strong countries, say it is a deterrent; vulnerable countries, saying that no one listens to, no one would believe, but also exposed the weak points, the more dangerous." Secretary Guangya said.
In 2009, the number of host IP in China Trojans control over 260,000, more than 160,000 foreign host addresses involved in the control of these computers; the bot control host IP over 830,000, nearly 20,000 foreign host address involved in the control of these computers; implementation of the year top 20 hackers web tampering attacks, more than half from overseas. "national the Internet emergency center run Ministry Deputy Director Zhou Yonglin, he said in an interview.
The United States reported that the major powers of China into network warfare
" killer "
China's information security problems inherent fundamental reason, largely over-reliance on foreign products caused Ning Jiajun.
13 units worldwide Internet home directory root domain name server, distributed in the United States , the United Kingdom , Switzerland , Japan , of which 10 units in the United States, the Chinese are not a. China generally use Intel CPU domestic Godson CPU worse than three generations, is equivalent to the gap between the CRT and LED TV. "Lei concern is that the Chinese database, safety standards, open communication protocol specification, almost all from abroad. Microsoft occupy 98% market share in the operating system of China. In critical infrastructure, software and hardware systems localization rate of the Chinese commercial banks are currently less than 3%, elevator, subway procedures with foreign systems. If it is set to the "back door" security out of the question.
There was a saying: before the 1991 Gulf War, the U.S. agents embedded in Iraq printer was purchased in France virus chip wartime cause paralysis of the early warning system in the Iraqi air defense system, the U.S. plane to drive straight. "This thing is now falsifiable, but a wake-up call to the Chinese all your chips are produced by someone else, is to know the seriousness of the problem, there is no way to change this is the gap backward technology products backward Finally, the introduction of what policy can not reverse. "Secretary Guangya said.
Aware of the problem of the country's major banks, customs, railway infrastructure, in 2005, China started a pilot risk assessment, and in conjunction with the rank of protection. The Lijing Chun summarize, the past few years, power, banking, insurance, securities, railways, telecommunications and other large state-owned enterprises, as well as taxation, customs, and have been able to resist the general network attacks, large-scale, organized national attack but still hard to resist. The seismic network virus incident, the security issues in the field once again highlighted. The real killer here. Still no hands, but must be highly vigilant Once hands, the loss is huge. "Ning Jiajun expressed worry.
Behind the over-reliance on technology, the relative lack of personnel training mechanism. Network technology, military and civilian, army training network talent, local universities, supplemented by military academies. But dedicated network security and foreign professional set of teaching materials compared to China and more linked with computer professional, minor system. There are a lot of people self-taught, the lack of countries, national defense, security awareness, easy to leak.
The Internet is a technology-intensive fields, but also need the basic disciplines of mathematics, physics, electronics and other support. Gap with foreign countries in this regard, non-overnight can make up. Lei said that during World War II, the Soviet Union is the big mechanized agriculture, tractor driver training into tanks hand. The United States, there are a lot of small civil aircraft training schools in Germany , from the selection of aviation personnel. Japan without the advantage of the Soviet Union, because of the limited national strength, not a civil aviation club. Thus, a large amount of money by the state "hit" of a group of pilots. Their gradual loss in the war, the Japanese can not normally fight, the only organization of death squads, could not escape the defeat fate. In the Internet field, face a similar situation today.
The war really happened, the outcome is determined by the level of a country's national strength and other not rely on a fresh recruit will be able to hot topic. "Offensive and defensive counter-balance, this struggle is never-ending, but we are in a passive position - core equipment, operating systems, most of the people, but now people rob your application, how can there be security?" Lijing Chun summarize .
Pictured British participation in the "Digital Storm III" cyber attack exercises.
Breakout "one-third of an acre of land
Experienced hacker attacks and other events, China has to pay close attention to the international network security posture. The lack of the core autonomy, network and information security strategic research, lack of comprehensive coordination is still not open around the bottleneck.
"In fact, the United States is the 2001 September 11 event trigger." Seems to Li Lei, the United States had also the lack of a clear strategy for the network with a separate supervision of the FBI, the National Security Agency and other departments. But after the painful lessons of the "9.11", the United States found a lot of events has already been signs, just the respective sporadic collected information is not integrated, and could not in time to stop the tragedy. Despite facing many obstacles, the United States department or integration. International Strategy Report "just released" cyberspace reflects the strong integration and coordination.
Strategic research, the U.S. National Cyber Security Strategy experienced a long period of formulation from Bush that start at any time, to the Obama era has brought together a lot of human and material resources, the implementation of the "new Manhattan Project to develop the overall strategy .
China's information security management departments or guarding their own one-third of an acre of land. Domestic institutions engaged in research in information security, the lack of long-term, sustained, strategic research, tend to be event-driven, event of certain events, temporary response, piecemeal gap the disease; relevant state departments such as the Ministry of Science and Technology, Ministry of Industry, Development and Reform Commission, also down arrangement of relevant research topic, but the comprehensiveness of the study, the lack of systemic.
Management of national security agencies, including the public security department, the national security department, the confidential sector, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, the State Council Information Office, the State Internet Information office, above them, the lack of a unified inter-departmental coordination mechanism. The Chinese military also exists the problem of multi-sector leading the trend.
"Fundamental or to insist on continuing research to determine the national strategy, the development of independent and controllable results and ability, but all the links are independent and controllable, in a fairly long period of time is not very realistic." Ning Jiajun pointed out, the most important countries give full play to the institutional advantages, to set up a high-level inter-departmental agencies, unified strategy to strengthen planning and coordination.
Li Jingchun remind new era China, but also pay more attention to the "Five Anti" - anti-cyber attacks, theft of the anti-technology, anti-cyber-crime, anti-consciousness penetration, anti-cyber warfare.
Of course, China has its own advantages. "The ability of information security with the United States can not be compared, but also has its own characteristics, the forefront of the row in the world." Lei said. In the eyes of Ye Zheng, China's unique advantage lies in: network war is the elite war, large base of Internet users in China, the recent years, the popularity of the network and the networks of knowledge in the country soon, nationals and military personnel a substantial increase in the quality of network selection from hundreds of millions of people Elite has innate favorable conditions.
In addition, the war is the art of the game in the door, more emphasis on creative network confrontation. Its own battles with other people's weapons, the Chinese army's strengths has always been. Network originality you you occupy the right place at the right time, you can control the network, located backdoor planting Trojans made 'bees', we are at a disadvantage, but we try to avoid weaknesses, kill the Trojan blocking the back door, anti-'bees' create effective killer. overall as well as others in the case, can still win the war. "Ye Zheng said.
The lobulation forecast trend of network development is a global network, all closed, fragmented network, will continue into the IP-based Internet, to form a complete network world, cloud computing, Internet of things will accelerate the process. China can not remain outside the trend. "Chinese army is cut off from basic physics-based, but slowly the whole world had to melt into a network go when your information security does not depend on physical isolation, but by a higher technical means to maintain. '
International strategic development of cyberspace in the United States, the implementation of the so-called "network freedom" advocates are not isolated from the Internet against Internet sovereignty, "and our country a lot of things these are diametrically opposite, between the lines we have a lot of threats." Ning Jiajun said, "Objectively speaking, the treatment of network security, cyber-terrorism and the United States, we have a common mission, network attacks can say is 'hemp fight wolves, two afraid' so we now put forward - play the United Nations in Internet management, set up under the framework of the United Nations, just Internet international regulatory agencies. "
Ning Jiajun recommended to actively seek the right to speak out their networks in diplomacy, international cooperation, and to participate in the discussion and formulation of the rules of the international Internet security, prohibit the use of large-scale networks destruction weapons.
Chinese Military View on US Army Use of Information Warfare
U.S. Army officers analyze information warfare theory ~ defects and impacts ten combat rules
Author: Zhiyuan November 01, 2010 17:24
Information warfare concepts covered in many, in addition to people are more familiar with computer network warfare, electronic warfare, information warfare, including psychological warfare, intelligence and media warfare, the article focuses on information warfare, intelligence and media warfare. I was a company commander in Afghanistan Kunar provincial capital of Asadabad, the mission of the U.S. military, in Afghanistan, information warfare, usually with the Provincial Reconstruction Team, governors, police chiefs and local Afghan media extensive cooperation.
The camp where I was ordered Lieutenant Colonel William Oster Lund, are responsible for the area is one of Afghanistan's most violent most chaotic areas, including Wa Nate, Kalin Ge valley, Pech Valley, and Pakistan handover The Ba Jiaer region. After a period of time the task is executed, we began to understand, perhaps we can guarantee to win every time with the rebels directly crossfire in the region, but we can not afford to do so in information warfare. Into the region of the second month, a Lian Wa Tapu Valley was an air raid, after a fierce exchange of fire with the enemy, killing dozens of insurgents, we sacrifice two paratroopers. After a day of fighting, we get the final victory, but we soon discovered, information warfare on the battlefield, we failed. Warring insurgents only by means of a simple satellite phone with the local media contact, they told the media we are free to massacre civilians. Despite the victory of the battle, he was being falsely accuse Finally, we have to explain to their superiors and the local population immediately untrue media reports.
That after the failure, we are determined to ensure that the fighting is no longer due to the lack of proactive information warfare action leads to action not been entirely successful. The second year, information warfare has become an indispensable part of our battlefield tactics. After the battle, from the point of view of the whole to fight the insurgency campaign to assess each battle or event, so you can more clearly and effectively to ensure that our counter-insurgency operations. We found that, play a decisive role in the success or failure of information warfare is the ordinary people of Afghanistan.
After on our deployment reflection, I now believe that which we had in the information war often at a disadvantage with the U.S. military's senior information warfare theory and structural problems, so I believe that the problem is widespread in the United States Army, we proposed solutions can be widely applicable to front-line troops. All levels troops are trying to solve the issue of civilian casualties in the air strikes, the greatest difficulty of this problem is actually the lack of information warfare capabilities in counterinsurgency operations. This paper can be said is a reflection of the problem.
In order to better understand the characteristics of counterinsurgency tasks to perform related tasks, our battlefield commanders must find a way to overcome the structural problems of the U.S. Army information warfare systems theory defects and top-heavy. During wartime operational commander must let his subordinates - specific to each battalion, company, platoon and classes - understand his tactical intentions, rational allocation of decision-making power and resources, the enemy launched a bold and decisive lasting precise information warfare, and the audience of these actions, all ordinary civilians. More senior tactical commanders must also realize played a decisive role in the success or failure of the action before making a good information warfare strategy will combat missions. The successful counterinsurgency need to us through proactive public to change the local culture, to enable ordinary people to understand the principle and mode of combat. In fact, these principles and combat has been refined, it can become effective, practical information warfare theory.
Defects of the theory of information warfare
The U.S. military did not specifically for the preparation of the formulation of the theory of information warfare battalion level and below the battalion level. Counterinsurgency warfare, strategic units and tactical units need to be obtained from the superior and subordinate combat related resource allocation and information warfare, but each unit often has a different definition and understanding of information warfare, this theoretical level. easily lead to contradictions responsible for fire-fighting units and the unit responsible for information warfare not a good fit, resulting in a waste of resources, information warfare, could have an advantage, resulting in the course of combat in the war units tacit insufficient, and affect the officers to make the most effective command decision.
Perform tactical unit to fight the insurgency mission tend to have a word of information warfare self-understanding, the simplest approach is to put the information to be treated as a public affairs or public relations war. Present on the battlefield, to ensure that the main task of the control of battlefield information is borne by the local security forces, this approach is too simple, the current information warfare is far from reaching the battlefield effect as defined in the theory of joint operations and Army theory . In this part of the "Field Manual 3-24" suppress insurrections "joint operations and information warfare in the case of Army combat is defined as:
Joint operations: focus on core strength, integrated electronic warfare, computer network warfare, psychological warfare, military deception and operational security measures, with the dedicated support and related units, to influence, interference, destruction and seizure of manual or automatic decision-making power of the enemy while protecting one's ability. (From "Joint Publication 1-02")
Army Combat: focus on core strength, integrated electronic warfare, computer network warfare, psychological warfare, military deception and operational security measures, with the dedicated support and related units, to disrupt the enemy's information systems and affect their decision-making ability, while protecting one's own information systems. (From "Field Manual 3-13
These two pairs of different understanding of information warfare shows where the U.S. military in the defects of the theory of information warfare. The Army's information warfare systems according to their own definition of information warfare, in actual counterinsurgency battle, in order to ensure the correctness of the decision-making, the Joint Tactical Force's actions in the context of information warfare are generally specific events The starting point to consider. Therefore, the Army's information warfare systems are often unable to achieve the desired results. Can bluntly said, It is not take into account the actual characteristics of the suppression of the rebellion fighting that led to the Army frustrated in information warfare.
Effective definition of information warfare must be integrated into public affairs, public relations, belligerent military and media condition factors. Public affairs and public relations, including through non-traditional media and social organizations to spread to the population, and impart information. Including even the most simple way of information warfare: direct face-to-face to tell each other.
Described as follows: mainly applicable object of this part of the manual is the Army combat and logistics units, group, division, brigade combat teams in this part of the "Army Field Manual 3-13" and "information warfare: theory, tactics, techniques and procedures" - especially those responsible for intelligence, planning and joint action of the General Staff, as well as directly involved in military deception, electronic warfare, operations security, fire support, psychological warfare, civil affairs and public affairs officers and staff officers. Therefore, this part of the content on the regimental level and division-level action is very applicable. The battalions usually need only execute the higher headquarters information warfare strategy. Stability operations and support operations battalions may have some beneficial information warfare conditions, but they first need to know the role of information warfare strategy in the brigade and divisional troops.
In addition to the above materials, at the tactical level, no additional U.S. military field manual or other theory to the battalion level and below the battalion level forces effectively integrate information warfare systems.
Army Field Manual 3-24 "mentioned" information warfare is often the decisive logical step in the battle. " In fact, even if not a "decisive" information warfare can also play for the victory in battle a very important role. Army Field Manual 3-24 "and U.S. forces seven years of combat experience let us understand that, in the counterinsurgency fight, the support of the people of war-torn countries or not essential. In actual combat, whether we win or loss in combat, there will always be soldiers injured or get killed in non-combat factors. The current situation is that the impact of information warfare is critical in combat, the attitude of the people of the war-torn country has been seen as an important strategic resource, regardless of our joint operations Army combat theories in the field of information warfare are not directly The company commander, platoon leader, squad leader, fire team participated in the battle to provide effective support.
The structure of the information warfare systems
U.S. military information warfare systems at division and brigade levels, bringing together experts, resources and decision-makers, but in the actual counter-insurgency war, the army is the most need is to have a stable of information warfare at the company level and row-level troops capacity.
Information warfare is the key to the success of counter-insurgency operations. From the tactical level, in terms of the implementation of the counter-insurgency mission in order to effectively establish a solid trust and understanding, you need to level, and the people of war-torn countries in the battalion level and below the battalion level. Happens in the most important forces battalion level and below the battalion level, there is no theoretical guidance of specialized information warfare action. The top-heavy in the resources, personnel, equipment and training to further reduce the battalion, company, platoon, class and fire team information warfare capabilities. Military information warfare initiators and decision-making authority is given in the divisional and brigade levels, because they feel that at least this level of troops to qualify only initiated or decisions of information warfare. Divisional and brigade-sized forces, in theory, can also act as a tactical forces, but in a counterinsurgency war environment, we must try civilians before the smallest tactical exposure. Result, the situation is information warfare command and transmission system at the strategic level, the goal of this system should be most concerned about at the tactical level.
This top-heavy structure of the system is due to some extent on the characteristics of information warfare, we do is not possible to simply electronic warfare, network warfare tasks assigned to each melee infantry. But in terms of public affairs, military deception and psychological warfare, and other forms of information warfare, the only tactical and even battlefield-level action can receive the best results. On the battlefield, the battlefield of information warfare control is critical to enhance local people's confidence in our actions and their governments are sometimes more useful than the troops dispatch. Understood by the people and with the winning magic weapon to suppress the insurgency war in information warfare This decentralized and distributed battlefield environment, in order to obtain a partial victory is absolutely no need to expose the existence of divisional and brigade-sized forces. The U.S. Army now adjust information warfare systems allowed to adapt to the current situation of the war, one of the most critical point is: from the tactical level so that civilians in war-torn countries as much as possible about our actions.
Information theory to guide real-proposal
U.S. Special Forces to the implementation of the counter-insurgency mission in Khulna Province of Afghanistan's Nuristan province based on their experience from May 2007 to August 2008 battle summarize the rule of 10 information warfare. Theoretical defects existing U.S. military is difficult to be accounted for in a proactive, comprehensive information warfare cheap. The ten rules Considering the army, the civil sector and local governments, and other factors, can help combat troops to some extent overcome the theoretical defect information warfare guidance.
1, in the counter-insurgency war, it is very important to obtain the trust of civilians. The truth is often beneficial to us, but not a burden.
The widespread U.S. soldiers in a mistaken view, and that is the reason why the insurgents hard to deal with, because they can spread some good false news under the circumstances, and not bear the negative impact. In fact, fraudulent tactics in order to be effective in information warfare must have a premise that truth is also unknown, no one can see through these fraudulent. Therefore, to consider the long-term and efficient, we need to keep in counter-insurgency operations, information warfare frank publish real information, not only to the civilians have to deal openly with the insurgents. U.S. military forces must take advantage of every opportunity to publicly expose the fraudulent messages spread by insurgents. At the same time, we should also take the initiative to recognize the error in action, and related responsibilities. Otherwise, the rebels will be happy to take advantage of these opportunities to damage our reputation, reduce the trust of local civilians by the U.S. military. Honest, responsible and efficient manner is the only way to obtain the trust of civilians, well, we can win on the battlefield.
2, through the dissemination of information to the actual purpose of
To fight the insurgency war is not completely isolated incident. Any event occurred in the greater insurgency environment, therefore, civilians in war-torn countries to get to know the truth, information warfare action is essential. Effective information warfare can play a role in explain, explain the purpose and significance of every U.S. military action to civilians, and eventually let them believe that, compared to the rebels, the new government would be a better choice. To achieve this goal, we must be aware of the sensitive issues of concern to the civilian population, and take the initiative to explain these problems together with real-time fighting and communicated to them. To closer relations with the civilian population, to make the civilians think the rebels will naturally realize that "they" think the U.S. military is "we". This seemingly insignificant difference between the text will be imperceptible to allow civilians to accept U.S. military. Such as an explosion events, can be directly described as "causing the death of two soldiers and blew up the car of an Allied" can also be described as "causing the death of two soldiers, and led to the construction of a highway construction team hurt The construction team was to build a remote town to the commercial center of the highway. We should adopt the latter form of publicity, a detailed statement of every detail of the event - the best and the prospect of civilians in war-torn countries linked civilians feel insurgents stood their opposites. Ignore these details is to give up the chance of public opinion to put pressure on the insurgents. Just tell civilians what happened was not enough, we also have to let them know what impact these events will even explain why there will be consequences.
To ensure overall contact, "each individual event have meaning in the information war."
To fight the insurgency activities every victory or frustration are the two sides can be further take advantage of the opportunity. The efficient information warfare including through proactive means to ensure that the U.S. military is able to maximize the positive impact of these events, at the same time try to shield the factors favorable to the insurgents.
Our current information warfare actions often only passively to eliminate the adverse effects caused by the insurgents. Positive effects of fact, the initiative the opportunity is always there, our commanders learn to integrate every battle or every event to a higher level areas consider, thus the formation of a joint force, so that a single event has been strengthened and expansion. The positive impact of each event, you can maintain a healthy relationship between the U.S. troops and civilians, civilians, insurgents confidence will drop, and then forced the rebels into a passive defensive information warfare state. In short, we must make every effort to setbacks on the battlefield into a propaganda victory, victory on the battlefield, it will have to become to affect more comprehensive victory.
In addition, we are in the information dissemination process should try to cooperate with the local government, the media, the power brokers, and gradually accustomed to receiving information from the local civilians. In many cases, civilians in war-torn countries and not just because of the religious and cultural sympathy of supporting the rebels, the more important reason is that they are unable to understand the truth of the matter, there is no other person can believe that. Then if there is an alternative, sustainable sources of information, civilians can get more right to be informed, so as to distinguish between the government and the rebels on the merits. We now can play such a role, I believe there are more local media and we will be willing to stand together. Civilians can receive multi-channel sources of information, is to create the necessary conditions for a qualified government.
4, pre-emptive, "not necessarily doing the right thing, as long as good on the line"
Our troops involved in counter-insurgency operations must grab before the rebels to let civilians know warring message. Our information warfare traditional to more emphasis on accuracy of the response, while ignoring the real-time, this is a wrong strategy. In fact, the timely and accurate are not necessarily mutually exclusive, honesty is also not simply mean dull. "Good" and "not the same as compared to the accuracy, the greater the difference before the two events complete relationship. Credibility does not require immediate integrity, but it instant degrees and final completion. The U.S., mislead, deceive civilians or its withholding of information is no good (for security purposes except military deception), we do not need to wait until things have been said over and then react. U.S. commanders have to have a good time, information warfare action neither the lack of information on the rush expand, can not miss the best time to collect complete information. Combat troops involved in the direct exchange of fire, to grasp this balance is more important, so I suggest that low-level officers should be allowed to participate in the discussion of information warfare action, sometimes more accurate in their judgment of the battlefield situation. Incident a few minutes later, and immediately released to the civilian population as much information and help to narrow the relationship between us and the civilians, if you wait until after two weeks to do these things fully investigate the absolute only is less effective.
5, to find the focus on the fight against the enemy of the decisive factors centric information warfare civilians
Play a decisive role in the suppression of the rebellion war actions against civilians. U.S. troops in actual combat, often too much emphasis on the direct exchange of fire with the enemy, we have only to information warfare activities as a means of defense enemy similar activities. The majority of our energy on how to destroy the enemy on the battlefield, but did not think the information warfare should focus civilians. In fact, the most critical counterinsurgency action is to get the support of the civilian population, directly on the battlefield the crossfire of course important, but those actions must be built on top of efforts to get the trust of the civilians.
6, to create a unified information warfare purposes
At all levels in the U.S. military headquarters on the understanding of information warfare is different, but we have to try to reach a consensus on a up and down and all directions. In addition to the army on the battlefield is also active in people from the provincial reconstruction team, the staff of the State Council, government cooperation contractor and civil matters experts, they are also the elements of space battlefield. Numerous organizations and funding sources are generally not conducive to the troops generals clear command in the war-torn country's civilians seems all these units only U.S. special forces. U.S. military commanders must understand To all units in the information warfare comprehensive consideration, taking into account the effectiveness of the unified behavior of each unit will affect U.S. credibility in the hearts of civilians.
In order to ensure the overall efficiency of information warfare, information warfare resources and decision-making authority granted to the junior officers of various battlefield is a critical step. Vary in different parts of the case, in order to maintain the credibility of the U.S. military in civilian mind, a company commander must have the right to master and adjust the location of the information, actions and other staff of the department, and even joint forces, local media and the rebels trends. Information warfare with the enemy from a comprehensive perspective will help us to gain an advantage. This may be different from the imagination of ordinary people, unified information warfare is not necessarily a high-ranking officers in order to better things, on the contrary, our decision-making powers should be granted to low-level military officers.
7, to ensure the efficiency of 24 hours * 7 days
Each responsible for information warfare of the U.S. military forces are necessary to maintain a 24-hour work coverage. We inadvertently suffered failure because the current 12-hour work system and not in the true sense of resolve every day another 50% of the time fighting. In the current environment of combat, the rebels and their client media in just a few hours you can "create" a news and let it spread, and information warfare systems to spend several days in order to do it. The main reason for this slow-paced merger of the 12-hour work system and decision-making power. Even those who have the power to issue an information warfare command officers, must wait for the forecast of the relevant departments of information, synchronization of information and material delivery to complete before issuing a subsequent command. We only guarantee to command resources to ensure 24 hours of continuous coverage, responsive and able to respond within a few minutes, in order to really do a good job battlefield comprehensive early warning and battlefield commanders in order to take full advantage of the access to information, the information the warfare systems if they are not seem so dull and useless.
Close air support, air melee and casualty evacuation mission, the immediacy and effectiveness of the instruction is particularly critical. In these cases, the issued what order depends almost entirely on the judgment of the commanders on the situation. We must ensure that the personnel involved in the operation have the ability to accomplish these tasks, because once failed, our losses will be very heavy. Recent combat experience proved, we need this for a fatal blow to the urgent action be extended to non-lethal action on the battlefield of the counter-insurgency, such as information warfare, the food supply, as well as some other relief projects. Because these actions must be in direct contact with civilians or insurgents, in essence, there is a considerable risk for tactical forces involved.
8, to provide adequate resources for each time information at each stage of the war
Each stage of the information warfare usually also contains a branch or follow-up. The purpose and effect of information warfare is largely similar to send troops before the expected firepower. It can achieve the following objectives:
• to ensure that the civilian population with the task of patrolling troops to ensure the normal highway construction work.
• demonstrate the sincerity of the government to civilians, the task can not be completed in the exchange of fire on the battlefield. Concrete can be in the form of a press conference. During an operation, the U.S. can cooperate with local government, government officials able to ensure the safety of the hidden point in the speech, and spread out the contents of the speech by radio.
• Strengthen partnerships and relevance of our war-torn countries. For example, we can advance through the local police chief five minutes the nighttime airstrike news release of U.S. troops - even if this Secretary is also just five minutes before that.
• announced the completion of the end of the project, or some of the initial results. We should be in line with the local government in the construction of any school, road works started to hold social activities. More specifically, once initiated by the engineering contractor luncheon marking the investment; project initiated by the power brokers started the press conference; once inspected by senior government officials reported by the media throughout the "accident"; provincial and municipal government the completion celebration sponsored meetings; anniversary of major events, and so on, can be counted as a category of information warfare.
In short, any occurrence of a non-combat casualties or property damage, we must attack to expand the information warfare action. Take timely, targeted information warfare action - even if it is just only ease the negative impact of the battlefield action - helps to maintain the credibility of the U.S. military in the minds of the local civilian. The once comprehensive action not only need the planning a good crossfire details, information warfare operations is essential.
9, the transfer of experience, training local forces of information warfare
Of the counterinsurgency war, no matter what victories we have made, there is certainly no partnership with the local government is a failure. When the U.S. military access to information warfare field advantage in the local, we must teach the local government partners have mastered these means of warfare. These need to be from now lasted until U.S. forces eventually leave the country and fully up to the new Government will be the task of maintaining national security. The transfer of responsibility does not mean reduced information warfare participants, the new government must have enough soldiers to master information warfare capabilities, like they need pilots as important as logistics experts and police.
The development of local information warfare forces is to make full use of their advantages in this regard, local information warfare participants more than the U.S. to understand their language, culture, history and truth, information publicity actions initiated by them more easily lead people resonate efficiency will be higher.
10, seeking feedback
Information warfare as cannon unlike direct firefight on the matter. Is just the beginning of the information warfare to information warfare and special audiences like to communicate and send a message, collect audience feedback is also important. Our ways through face-to-face exchange of traditional and non-traditional media, hot phone, local coordination center to understand the effect of publicity action before.
Occupy the active role of information warfare
Although U.S. information warfare theory and structure such as defects, but our commanders at all levels must understand that occupy live active position in the information warfare is to win the key to fight the insurgency war. Fighting forces beyond the control of the battlefield of information warfare, that is to give up a tool may play a decisive role. The counterinsurgency war key point is to get the support of the people to information warfare is to provide support for the actions of tactical forces. Doing the same can also help the local government to expand its influence, and eventually allow people to give up the rebels, and support for the new government.
The operational and strategic headquarters of the U.S. military must actively promote information warfare resources allocated between the subordinate forces, able to clearly understand the intent of the superior field officers, so as more handy to commence the action, and occupied in the war in principle initiative. Must not be because of the lack of clarity of purpose and priority of resource use, and lead combat troops in the case of the overwhelming technical superiority cheaper but can not be accounted for in the information war. In short, information warfare is an important tactical behavior, each battalion of the U.S. military, company, platoon and squad even fire team, must take the initiative to participate boldly into it, to grasp the initiative in the information warfare, help us to adhere to in the end, get the final victory.
Author: U.S. Army Captain Leonardo J • Flor
Compile: Zhiyuan / Yishui Han
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